By Aarti Bhavana
The much-discussed IANA transition has finally been completed, now that the U.S. Government’s contract with ICANN for IANA Functions has expired. This brings to an end the governmental oversight of these functions, a plan outlined back in 1998, and transfers it to a global multistakeholder community. The Centre for Communication Governance’s coverage of the transition over the last two years can be accessed here. In addition, our recent report on multistakeholderism discusses the role Indian stakeholders have played in ICANN over the last 5 years. It is a useful introduction to the way policy is made in ICANN’s multistakeholder model.
In March 2014, National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) under the U.S. Department of Commerce announced its intent to transfer the oversight of key Internet domain name functions to a global multistakeholder community. In the months that followed, working groups were set up to develop proposals both for the stewardship transition, as well for enhancing ICANN’s accountability. Both proposals were finalized and sent to the ICANN Board of Directors to be transmitted to NTIA. On 9th June 2016, after careful evaluation, the NTIA announced that the proposals met the criteria outlined by the NTIA in March 2014.
Despite meeting all the requirements set out, the weeks leading up to today have been far from smooth. Last week, the U.S. Senate Judiciary Sub-committee held a hearing on “Protecting Internet Freedom: Implications of Ending U.S. Oversight of the Internet.” The opposition from the Republicans, led by Sen. Cruz, has also been supported by Donald Trump. There were also attempts to delay the transition by including a rider in the U.S. Government funding bill. This was ultimately not added, leaving the path clear for the transition.
However, in a dramatic twist two days ago, four U.S. states filed a lawsuit in Texas to block the transition. The motion for a temporary injunction was heard by the federal court a few hours ago, and denied. This officially brings a two year long process to a successful end. Many Indian stakeholders participated in the transition process as members of the multistakeholder community. However, as our report on multistakeholderism shows, there is scope for greater Indian engagement with ICANN and its policy processes.
In the midst of this celebration, it must be remembered that the work is not over. Efforts at increasing ICANN’s accountability are still ongoing with Work Stream 2, and consist of several critical topics like transparency, diversity and human rights that require the same level of effort as the transition. As discussed in our report‘s on ICANN Chapter, accountability is an issue on which ICANN has faced serious complaints in the past. The next stages of the transition offers stakeholders an opportunity to address these questions.