Building an AI Governance Framework for India, Part II

Embedding Principles of Safety, Equality and Non-Discrimination

This post has been authored by Jhalak M. Kakkar and Nidhi Singh

In July 2020, the NITI Aayog released a draft Working Document entitled “Towards Responsible AI for All” (hereafter ‘NITI Working Document’ or ‘Working Document’). This Working Document was initially prepared for an expert consultation held on 21 July 2020. It was later released for comments by stakeholders on the development of a ‘Responsible AI’ policy in India. CCG responded with comments to the Working Document, and our analysis can be accessed here.

In our previous post on building an AI governance framework for India, we discussed the legal and regulatory implications of the proposed Working Document and argued that India’s approach to regulating AI should be (1) firmly grounded in its Constitutional framework and (2) based on clearly articulated overarching principles. While the NITI Working Document introduces certain principles, it does not go into any substantive details on what the adoption of these principles into India’s regulatory framework would entail.

We will now examine these ‘Principles for Responsible AI’, their constituent elements and avenues for incorporating them into the Indian regulatory framework. The NITI Working Document proposed the following seven ‘Principles for Responsible AI’ to guide India’s regulatory framework for AI systems: 

  1. Safety and reliability
  2. Equality
  3. Inclusivity and Non-Discrimination
  4. Privacy and Security 
  5. Transparency
  6. Accountability
  7. Protection and Reinforcement of Positive Human Values. 

This post explores the principles of Safety and Reliability, Equality, and Inclusivity and Non-Discrimination. A subsequent post will discuss the principles of Privacy and Security, Transparency, Accountability and the Protection and Reinforcement of Positive Human Values.

Principle of Safety and Reliability

The Principle of Reliability and Safety aims to ensure that AI systems operate reliably in accordance with their intended purpose throughout their lifecycle and ensures the security, safety and robustness of an AI system. It requires that AI systems should not pose unreasonable safety risks, should adopt safety measures which are proportionate to the potential risks, should be continuously monitored and tested to ensure compliance with their intended purpose, and should have a continuous risk management system to address any identified problems. 

Here, it is important to note the distinction between safety and reliability. The reliability of a system relates to the ability of an AI system to behave exactly as its designers have intended and anticipated. A reliable system would adhere to the specifications it was programmed to carry out. Reliability is therefore, a measure of consistency and establishes confidence in the safety of a system. Whereas, safety refers to an AI system’s ability to do what it is supposed to do without harming users (human physical integrity), resources or the environment.

Human oversight: An important aspect of ensuring the safety and reliability of AI systems is the presence of human oversight over the system. Any regulatory framework that is developed in India to govern AI systems must incorporate norms that specify the circumstances and degree to which human oversight is required over various AI systems. 

The level of involvement of human oversight would depend upon the sensitivity of the function and potential for significant impact on an individual’s life which the AI system may have. For example, AI systems deployed in the context of the provision of government benefits should have a high level of human oversight. Decisions made by the AI system in this context should be reviewed by a human before being implemented. Other AI systems may be deployed in contexts that do not need constant human involvement. However, these systems should have a mechanism in place for human review if a question is subsequently raised for review by, say a user. An example of this may be vending machines which have simple algorithms. Hence, the purpose for which the system is deployed and the impact it could have on individuals would be relevant factors in determining if ‘human in the loop’, ‘human on the loop’, or any other oversight mechanism is appropriate. 

Principle of Equality

The principle of equality holds that everyone, irrespective of their status in the society, should get the same opportunities and protections with the development of AI systems. 

Implementing equality in the context of AI systems essentially requires three components: 

(i) Protection of human rights: AI instruments developed across the globe have highlighted that the implementation of AI would pose risks to the right to equality, and countries would have to take steps to mitigate such risks proactively. 

(ii) Access to technology: The AI systems should be designed in a way to ensure widespread access to technology, so that people may derive benefits from AI technology.

(iii) Guarantees of equal opportunities through technology: The guarantee of equal opportunity relies upon the transformative power of AI systems to “help eliminate relationships of domination between groups and people based on differences of power, wealth, or knowledge” and “produce social and economic benefits for all by reducing social inequalities and vulnerabilities.” AI systems will have to be designed and deployed such that they further the guarantees of equal opportunity and do not exacerbate and further entrench existing inequality.

The development, use and deployment of AI systems in society would pose the above-mentioned risks to the right to equality, and India’s regulatory framework for AI must take steps to mitigate such risks proactively.

Principle of Inclusivity and Non-Discrimination

The idea of non-discrimination mostly arises out of technical considerations in the context of AI. It holds that non-discrimination and the prevention of bias in AI should be mitigated in the training data, technical design choices, or the technology’s deployment to prevent discriminatory impacts. 

Examples of this can be seen in data collection in policing, where the disproportionate attention paid to neighbourhoods with minorities, would show higher incidences of crime in minority neighbourhoods, thereby skewing AI results. Use of AI systems becomes safer when they are trained on datasets that are sufficiently broad, and the datasets encompass the various scenarios in which the system is envisaged to be deployed. Additionally, datasets should be developed to be representative and hence avoid discriminatory outcomes from the use of the AI system. 

Another example of this can be semi-autonomous vehicles which experience higher accident rates among dark-skinned pedestrians due to the software’s poorer performance in recognising darker-skinned individuals. This can be traced back to training datasets, which contained mostly light-skinned people. The lack of diversity in the data set can lead to discrimination against specific groups in society. To ensure effective non-discrimination, AI policies must be truly representative of the society in its training data and ensure that no section of the populace is either over-represented or under-represented, which may skew the data sets. While designing the AI systems for deployment in India, the constitutional rights of individuals should be used as central values around which the AI systems are designed. 

In order to implement inclusivity in AI, the diversity of the team involved in design as well as the diversity of the training data set would have to be assessed. This would involve the creation of guidelines under India’s regulatory framework for AI to help researchers and programmers in designing inclusive data sets, measuring product performance on the parameter of inclusivity, selecting features to avoid exclusion and testing new systems through the lens of inclusivity.

Checklist Model: To address the challenges of non-discrimination and inclusivity a potential model which can be adopted in India’s regulatory framework for AI would be the ‘Checklist’. The European Network of Equality Bodies (EQUINET), in its recent report on ‘Meeting the new challenges to equality and non-discrimination from increased digitisation and the use of Artificial Intelligence’ provides a checklist to assess whether an AI system is complying with the principles of equality and non-discrimination. The checklist consists of several broad categories, with a focus on the deployment of AI technology in Europe. This includes heads such as direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, transparency, other types of equity claims, data protection, liability issues, and identification of the liable party. 

The list contains a series of questions which judges whether an AI system meets standards of equality, and identifies any potential biases it may have. For example, the question “Does the artificial intelligence system treat people differently because of a protected characteristic?” includes the parameters of both direct data and proxies. If the answer to the question is yes, the system would be identified as indulging in indirect bias. A similar checklist system, which has been contextualised for India, can be developed and employed in India’s regulatory framework for AI. 

Way forward

This post highlights some of the key aspects of the principles of Safety and Reliability, Equality, and Inclusivity and Non-Discrimination. Integration of these principles which have been identified in the NITI Working Document into India’s regulatory framework requires that we first clearly define their content, scope and ambit to identify the right mechanisms to operationalise them. Given the absence of any exploration of the content of these AI principles or the mechanism for their implementation in India in the NITI Working Document, we have examined the relevant international literature surrounding the adoption of AI ethics and suggested mechanisms for their adoption. The NITI Working Document has spurred discussion around designing an effective regulatory framework for AI. However, these discussions are at a preliminary stage and there is a need to develop a far more nuanced proposal for a regulatory framework for AI.

Over the last week, India has hosted the Responsible AI for Social Empowerment (RAISE) Summit which has involved discussions around India’s vision and roadmap for social transformation, inclusion and empowerment through Responsible AI. As we discuss mechanisms for India to effectively harness the economic potential of AI, we also need to design an effective framework to address the massive regulatory challenges emerging from the deployment of AI—simultaneously, and not as an afterthought post-deployment. While a few of the RAISE sessions engaged with certain aspects of regulating AI, there still remains a need for extensive, continued public consultations with a cross section of stakeholders to embed principles for Responsible AI in the design of an effective AI regulatory framework for India. 

For a more detailed discussion on these principles and their integration into the Indian context, refer to our comments to the NITI Aayog here. 

[September 30-October 7] CCG’s Week in Review Curated News in Information Law and Policy

Huawei finds support from Indian telcos in the 5G rollout as PayPal withdrew from Facebook’s Libra cryptocurrency project; Foreign Portfolio Investors moved MeitY against in the Data Protection Bill; the CJEU rules against Facebook in case relating to takedown of content globally; and Karnataka joins list of states considering implementing NRC to remove illegal immigrants – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security.

Digital India

  • [Sep 30] Why the imminent global economic slowdown is a growth opportunity for Indian IT services firms, Tech Circle report.
  • [Sep 30] Norms tightened for IT items procurement for schools, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 1] Govt runs full throttle towards AI, but tech giants want to upskill bureaucrats first, Analytics India Magazine report.
  • [Oct 3] – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security. MeitY launches smart-board for effective monitoring of the key programmes, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] “Use human not artificial intelligence…” to keep a tab on illegal constructions: Court to Mumbai civic body, NDTV report.
  • [Oct 3] India took 3 big productivity leaps: Nilekani, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 4] MeitY to push for more sops to lure electronic makers, The Economic Times report; Inc42 report.
  • [Oct 4] Core philosophy of Digital India embedded in Gandhian values: Ravi Shankar Prasad, Financial Express report.
  • [Oct 4] How can India leverage its data footprint? Experts weigh in at the India Economic Summit, Quartz report.
  • [Oct 4] Indians think jobs would be easy to find despite automation: WEF, Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 4] Telangana govt adopts new framework to use drones for last-mile delivery, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 5] Want to see ‘Assembled in India’ on an iPhone: Ravi Shankar Prasad, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 6] Home market gets attractive for India’s IT giants, The Economic Times report.

Internet Governance

  • [Oct 2] India Govt requests maximum social media content takedowns in the world, Inc42 report; Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 3] Facebook can be forced to delete defamatory content worldwide, top EU court rules, Politico EU report.
  • [Oct 4] EU ruling may spell trouble for Facebook in India, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 4] TikTok, TikTok… the clock is ticking on the question whether ByteDance pays its content creators, ET Tech report.
  • [Oct 6] Why data localization triggers a heated debate, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 7] Sensitive Indian govt data must be stored locally, Outlook report.

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [Sep 30] FPIs move MeitY against data bill, seek exemption, ET markets report, Inc42 report; Financial Express report.
  • [Oct 1] United States: CCPA exception approved by California legislature, Mondaq.com report.
  • [Oct 1] Privacy is gone, what we need is regulation, says Infosys Kris Gopalakrishnana, News18 report.
  • [Oct 1] Europe’s top court says active consent is needed for tracking cookies, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Oct 3] Turkey fines Facebook $282,000 over data privacy breach, Deccan Herald report.

Free Speech

  • [Oct 1] Singapore’s ‘fake news’ law to come into force Wednesday, but rights group worry it could stifle free speech, The Japan Times report.
  • [Oct 2] Minister says Singapore’s fake news law is about ‘enabling’ free speech, CNBC report.
  • [Oct 3] Hong Kong protests: Authorities to announce face mask ban, BBC News report.
  • [Oct 3] ECHR: Holocaust denial is not protected free speech, ASIL brief.
  • [Oct 4] FIR against Mani Ratnam, Adoor and 47 others who wrote to Modi on communal violence, The News Minute report; Times Now report.
  • [Oct 5] UN asks Malaysia to repeal laws curbing freedom of speech, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Oct 6] When will our varsities get freedom of expression: PC, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Oct 6] UK Government to make university students sign contracts limiting speech and behavior, The Times report.
  • [Oct 7] FIR on Adoor and others condemned, The Telegraph report.

Aadhaar, Digital IDs

  • [Sep 30] Plea in SC seeking linking of social media accounts with Aadhaar to check fake news, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] Why another omnibus national ID card?, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [Oct 2] ‘Kenyan court process better than SC’s approach to Aadhaar challenge’: V Anand, who testified against biometric project, LiveLaw report.
  • [Oct 3] Why Aadhaar is a stumbling block in Modi govt’s flagship maternity scheme, The Print report.
  • [Oct 4] Parliament panel to review Aadhaar authority functioning, data security, NDTV report.
  • [Oct 5] Could Aahdaar linking stop GST frauds?, Financial Express report.
  • [Oct 6] Call for liquor sale-Aadhaar linking, The New Indian Express report.

Digital Payments, Fintech

  • [Oct 7] Vision cash-lite: A billion UPI transactions is not enough, Financial Express report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Oct 1] US SEC fines crypto company Block.one for unregistered ICO, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 1] South Korean Court issues landmark decision on crypto exchange hacking, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 2] The world’s most used cryptocurrency isn’t bitcoin, ET Markets report.
  • [Oct 2] Offline transactions: the final frontier for global crypto adoption, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Oct 3] Betting on bitcoin prices may soon be deemed illegal gambling, The Economist report.
  • [Oct 3] Japan’s financial regulator issues draft guidelines for funds investing in crypto, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 3] Hackers launch widespread botnet attack on crypto wallets using cheap Russian malware, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 4] State-backed crypto exchange in Venezuela launches new crypto debit cards, Decrypt report.
  • [Oct 4] PayPal withdraws from Facebook-led Libra crypto project, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 5] Russia regulates digital rights, advances other crypto-related bills, Bitcoin.com report.
  • [Oct 5] Hong Kong regulates crypto funds, Decrypt report.

Cybersecurity and Cybercrime

  • [Sep 30] Legit-looking iPhone lightening cables that hack you will be mass produced and sold, Vice report.
  • [Sep 30] Blackberry launches new cybersecurity development labs, Infosecurity Mgazine report.
  • [Oct 1] Cybersecurity experts warn that these 7 emerging technologies will make it easier for hackers to do their jobs, Business Insider report.
  • [Oct 1] US government confirms new aircraft cybersecurity move amid terrorism fears, Forbes report.
  • [Oct 2] ASEAN unites to fight back on cyber crime, GovInsider report; Asia One report.
  • [Oct 2] Adopting AI: the new cybersecurity playbook, TechRadar Pro report.
  • [Oct 4] US-UK Data Access Agreement, signed on Oct 3, is an executive agreement under the CLOUD Act, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 4] The lack of cybersecurity talent is ‘a  national security threat,’ says DHS official, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Oct 4] Millions of Android phones are vulnerable to Israeli surveillance dealer attack, Forbes report; NDTV report.
  • [Oct 4] IoT devices, cloud solutions soft target for cybercriminals: Symantec, Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 6] 7 cybersecurity threats that can sneak up on you, Wired report.
  • [Oct 6] No one could prevent another ‘WannaCry-style’ attack, says DHS official, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Oct 7] Indian firms rely more on automation for cybersecurity: Report, ET Tech report.

Cyberwarfare

  • [Oct 2] New ASEAN committee to implement norms for countries behaviour in cyberspace, CNA report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 30] IAF ready for Balakot-type strike, says new chief Bhadauria, The Hindu report; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 30] Naval variant of LCA Tejas achieves another milestone during its test flight, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 30] SAAB wants to offer Gripen at half of Rafale cost, full tech transfer, The Print report.
  • [Sep 30] Rajnath harps on ‘second strike capability’, The Shillong Times report.
  • [Oct 1] EAM Jaishankar defends India’s S-400 missile system purchase from Russia as US sanctions threat, International Business Times report.
  • [Oct 1] SC for balance between liberty, national security, Hindustan Times report.
  • [Oct 2] Startups have it easy for defence deals up to Rs. 150 cr, ET Rise report, Swarajya Magazine report.
  • [Oct 3] Huawei-wary US puts more pressure on India, offers alternatives to data localization, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 4] India-Russia missile deal: What is CAATSA law and its implications?, Jagran Josh report.
  • [Oct 4] Army inducts Israeli ‘tank killers’ till DRDO develops new ones, Defence Aviation post report.
  • [Oct 4] China, Russia deepen technological ties, Defense One report.
  • [Oct 4] Will not be afraid of taking decisions for fear of attracting corruption complaints: Rajnath Singh, New Indian Express report.
  • [Oct 4] At conclave with naval chiefs of 10 countries, NSA Ajit Doval floats an idea, Hindustan Times report.
  • [Oct 6] Pathankot airbase to finally get enhanced security, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 6] rafale with Meteor and Scalp missiles will give India unrivalled combat capability: MBDA, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 7] India, Bangladesh sign MoU for setting up a coastal surveillance radar in Bangladesh, The Economic Times report; Decaan Herald report.
  • [Oct 7] Indian operated T-90 tanks to become Russian army’s main battle tank, EurAsian Times report.
  • [Oct 7] IAF’s Sukhois to get more advanced avionics, radar, Defence Aviation post report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [Sep 30] TMC MP Mahua Mitra wants to be impleaded in the WhatsApp traceability case, Medianama report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] Role of GIS and emerging technologies in crime detection and prevention, Geospatial World.net report.
  • [Oct 2] TRAI to take more time on OTT norms; lawful interception, security issue now in focus, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 2[ China invents super surveillance camera that can spot someone from a crowd of thousands, The Independent report.
  • [Oct 4] ‘Don’t introduce end-to-end encryption,’ UK, US and Australia ask Facebook in an open letter, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 4] Battling new-age cyber threats: Kerala Police leads the way, The Week report.
  • [Oct 7] India govt bid to WhatsApp decryption gets push as UK,US, Australia rally support, Entrackr report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Oct 1] WhatsApp was extensively exploited during 2019 elections in India: Report, Firstpost report.
  • [Oct 3] A national security problem without a parallel in American democracy, Defense One report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 30] BDC polls across Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh on Oct 24, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 30] India ‘invaded and occupied Kashmir, says Malaysian PM at UN General Assembly, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 30] J&K police stations to have CCTV camera surveillance, News18 report.
  • [Oct 1] 5 judge Supreme court bench to hear multiple pleas on Article 370, Kashmir lockdown today, India Today report.
  • [Oct 1] India’s stand clear on Kashmir: won’t accept third-party mediation, India Today report.
  • [Oct 1] J&K directs officials to ensure all schools reopen by Thursday, NDTV report.
  • [Oct 2]] ‘Depressed, frightened’: Minors held in Kashmir crackdown, Al Jazeera report.
  • [Oct 3] J&K: When the counting of the dead came to a halt, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 3] High schools open in Kashmir, students missing, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] Jaishanakar reiterates India’s claim over Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 3] Normalcy prevails in Jammu and Kashmir, DD News report.
  • [Oct 3] Kashmiri leaders will be released one by one, India Today report.
  • [Oct 4] India slams Turkey, Malaysia remarks on J&K, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 5] India’s clampdown hits Kashmir’s Silicon Valley, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 5] Traffic cop among 14 injured in grenade attack in South Kashmir, NDTV report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 6] Kashmir situation normal, people happy with Article 370 abrogation: Prkash Javadekar, Times of India report.
  • [Oct 7] Kashmir residents say police forcibly taking over their homes for CRPF troops, Huffpost India report.

Internal Security: Northeast/ NRC

  • [Sep 30] Giving total control of Assam Rifles to MHA will adversely impact vigil: Army to Govt, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 30] NRC list impact: Assam’s foreigner tribunals to have 1,600 on contract, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 30] Assam NRC: Case against Wipro for rule violation, The Hindu report; News18 report; Scroll.in report.
  • [Sep 30] Hindu outfits demand NRC in Karnataka, Deccan Chronicle report; The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Oct 1] Centre extends AFPSA in three districts of Arunachal Pradesh for six months, ANI News report.
  • [Oct 1] Assam’s NRC: law schools launch legal aid clinic for excluded people, The Hindu report; Times of India report; The Wire report.
  • [Oct 1] Amit Shah in Kolkata: NRC to be implemented in West Bengal, infiltrators will be evicted, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] US Congress panel to focus on Kashmir, Assam, NRC in hearing on human rights in South Asia, News18 report.
  • [Oct 1] NRC must for national security; will be implemented: Amit Shah, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [Oct 2] Bengali Hindu women not on NRC pin their hope on promise of another list, citizenship bill, The Print report.
  • [Oct 3] Citizenship Amendment Bill has become necessity for those left out of NRC: Assam BJP president Ranjeet Das, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] BJP govt in Karnataka mulling NRC to identify illegal migrants, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] Explained: Why Amit Shah wants to amend the Citizenship Act before undertaking countrywide NRC, The Indian Express report.
  • [Oct 4] Duplicating NPR, NRC to sharpen polarization: CPM, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Oct 5] We were told NRC India’s internal issue: Bangladesh, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 6] Prasanna calls NRC ‘unjust law’, The New Indian Express report.

National Security Institutions

  • [Sep 30] CRPF ‘denied’ ration cash: Govt must stop ‘second-class’ treatment. The Quint report.
  • [Oct 1] Army calls out ‘prejudiced’ foreign report on ‘torture’, refutes claim, Republic World report.
  • [Oct 2] India has no extraterritorial ambition, will fulfill regional and global security obligations: Bipin Rawat, The Economic Times report.

More on Huawei, 5G

  • [Sep 30] Norway open to Huawei supplying 5G equipment, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 30] Airtel deploys 100 hops of Huawei’s 5G technology, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] America’s answer to Huawei, Foreign Policy report; Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 1] Huawei buys access to UK innovation with Oxford stake, Financial Times report.
  • [Oct 3] India to take bilateral approach on issues faced by other countries with China: Jaishankar, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 4] Bharti Chairman Sunil Mittal says India should allow Huawei in 5G, The Economic Times report
  • [Oct 6] 5G rollout: Huawei finds support from telecom industry, Financial Express report.

Emerging Tech: AI, Facial Recognition

  • [Sep 30] Bengaluru set to roll out AI-based traffic solution at all signals, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 1] AI is being used to diagnose disease and design new drugs, Forbes report.
  • [Oct 1] Only 10 jobs created for every 100 jobs taken away by AI, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 2]Emerging tech is helping companies grow revenues 2x: report, ET Tech report.
  • [Oct 2] Google using dubious tactics to target people with ‘darker skin’ in facial recognition project: sources, Daily News report.
  • [Oct 2] Three problems posed by deepfakes that technology won’t solve, MIT Technology Review report.
  • [Oct 3] Getting a new mobile number in China will involve a facial recognition test, Quartz report.
  • [Oct 4] Google contractors targeting homeless people, college students to collect their facial recognition data: Report, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 4] More jobs will be created than are lost from the IA revolution: WEF AI Head, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 6] IIT-Guwahati develops AI-based tool for electric vehicle motor, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 7] Even if China misuses AI tech, Satya Nadella thinks blocking China’s AI research is a bad idea, India Times report.

Big Tech

  • [Oct 3] Dial P for privacy: Google has three new features for users, Times of India report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 26] Richard Stengel, Time, We’re in the middle of a global disinformation war. Here’s what we need to do to win.
  • [Sep 29] Ilker Koksal, Forbes, The shift toward decentralized finance: Why are financial firms turning to crypto?
  • [Sep 30] Nistula Hebbar, The Hindu, Govt. views grassroots development in Kashmir as biggest hope for peace.
  • [Sep 30] Simone McCarthy, South China Morning Post, Could China’s strict cyber controls gain international acceptance?
  • [Sep 30] Nele Achten, Lawfare blog, New UN Debate on cybersecurity in the context of international security.
  • [Sep 30[ Dexter Fergie, Defense One, How ‘national security’ took over America.
  • [Sep 30] Bonnie Girard, The Diplomat, A firsrhand account of Huawei’s PR drive.
  • [Oct 1] The Economic Times, Rafale: Past tense but furture perfect.
  • [Oct 1] Simon Chandler, Forbes, AI has become a tool for classifying and ranking people.
  • [Oct 2] Ajay Batra, Business World, Rethink India! – MMRCA, ESDM & Data Privacy Policy.
  • [Oct 2] Carisa Nietsche, National Interest, Why Europe won’t combat Huawei’s Trojan tech.
  • [Oct 3] Aruna Sharma, Financial Express, The digital way: growth with welfare.
  • [Oct 3] Alok Prasanna Kumar, Medianama, When it comes to Netflix, the Government of India has no chill.
  • [Oct 3] Fredrik Bussler, Forbes, Why we need crypto for good.
  • [Oct 3] Panos Mourdoukoutas, Forbes, India changed the game in Kashmir – Now what?
  • [Oct 3] Grant Wyeth, The Diplomat, The NRC and India’s unfinished partition.
  • [Oct 3] Zak Doffman, Forbes, Is Huawei’s worst Google nightmare coming true?
  • [Oct 4] Oren Yunger, Tech Crunch, Cybersecurity is a bubble, but it’s not ready to burst.
  • [Oct 4] Minakshi Buragohain, Indian Express, NRS: Supporters and opposers must engage each other with empathy.
  • [Oct 4] Frank Ready, Law.com, 27 countries agreed on ‘acceptable’ cyberspace behavior. Now comes the hard part.
  • [Oct 4] Samir Saran, World economic Forum (blog), 3 reasons why data is not the new oil and why this matters to India.
  • [Oct 4] Andrew Marantz, The New York Times, Free Speech is killing us.
  • [Oct 4] Financial Times editorial, ECJ ruling risks for freedom of speech online.
  • [Oct 4] George Kamis, GCN, Digital transformation requires a modern approach to cybersecurity.
  • [Oct 4] Naomi Xu Elegant and Grady McGregor, Fortune, Hong King’s mask ban pits anonymity against the surveillance state.
  • [Oct 4] Prashanth Parameswaran, The Diplomat, What’s behind the new US-ASEAN cyber dialogue?
  • [Oct 5] Huong Le Thu, The Strategist, Cybersecurity and geopolitics: why Southeast Asia is wary of a Huawei ban.
  • [Oct 5] Hannah Devlin, The Guardian, We are hurtling towards a surveillance state: the rise of facial recognition technology.
  • [Oct 5] PV Navaneethakrishnan, The Hindu Why no takers? (for ME/M.Tech programmes).
  • [Oct 6] Aakar Patel, Times of India blog, Cases against PC, letter-writing celebs show liberties are at risk.
  • [Oct 6] Suhasini Haidar, The Hindu, Explained: How ill purchases from Russia affect India-US ties?
  • [Oct 6] Sumit Chakraberty, Livemint, Evolution of business models in the era of privacy by design.
  • [Oct 6] Spy’s Eye, Outlook, Insider threat management.
  • [Oct 6] Roger Marshall, Deccan Herald, Big oil, Big Data and the shape of water.
  • [Oct 6] Neil Chatterjee, Fortune, The power grid is evolving. Cybersecurity  must too.
  • [Oct 7] Scott W Pink, Modaq.com, EU: What is GDPR and CCPA and how does it impact blockchain?
  • [Oct 7] GN Devy, The Telegraph, Has India slid into an irreversible Talibanization of the mind?
  • [Oct 7] Susan Ariel Aaronson, South China Morning Post, The Trump administration’s approach to AI is not that smart: it’s about cooperation, not domination.

[September 23-30] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

The deadline to link PAN cards with Aadhaar was extended to December 31 this week; the Election Commission ruled that voting rights of those excluded in the NRC process remain unaffected; the Home Minister proposed a digital census with multipurpose ID cards for 2021; and 27 nations including the US, UK and Canada issued joint statement urging for a rules-based order in cyberspace – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, technology and national security.

Aadhaar and Digital IDs

  • [Sep 23] Home Minister announces digital census in 2021, proposed multipurpose ID card, Entrackr report; Business Today report.
  • [Sep 24] NRIs can now apply for Aadhaar on arrival without 182-day wait, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 24] Aadhaar will be linked to driving license to avoid forgery: Ravi Shankar Prasad, The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 24] One nation, one card? Amit Shah floats idea of all-in-one ID; here are all the problems with that idea, Medianama report; Money Control report.
  • [Sep 24] Explained: Is India likely to have a multipurpose national ID card? The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 24] UIDAI nod to ‘voluntary’ use of Aadhaar for National Population Register rollout, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 24] Govt must decide on Aadhaar-social media linkage:SC, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 25] New law needed for Aadhaar-social media linkage: UIDAI, The Economic Times report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 26] NPR process to include passport, voter ID, Aadhaar and other details, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 27] Gang involved in making fake Aadhaar cards busted, The Tribune report.
  • [Sep 27] What will happen if you don’t link your PAN card with Aadhaar by Sep 20, The Quint report.
  • [Sep 27] Explained: The National Population Register, and the controversy around it, The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 27] Aadhaar to weed out bogus social security beneficiaries in Karnataka, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 29] Bajrang Dal wants Aadhaar mandatory at dandiya to keep ‘non-Hindus’ out, The Hindustan Times report; The Wire report.
  • [Sep 30] Kerala urges Centre to extend deadline to link ration cards with Aadhaar, The News Minute report.
  • [Sep 30] PAN-Aadhaar linking deadline extended to December 31, The Economic Times report.

Digital India 

  • [Sep 25] India’s regulatory approach should focus on the regulation of the ‘core’: IAMAI, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 27] India may have to offer sops to boost electronic manufacturing, ET Tech report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 27] Digital India, start-ups are priorities for $5 trillion economy: PM Modi, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 29] Tech giants aim to skill Indian govt officials in AI, cloud, ET CIO report.
  • [Sep 29] India’s share in IT, R&D biz up in 2 years: report, The Economic Times report.

Internet Governance

  • [Sep 24] Supreme Court to MeitY: What’s the status of intermediary guidelines? Tell us by Oct 15, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 26] Will not be ‘excessive’ with social media rules, ay Govt officials, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 26] Government trying to balance privacy and security in draft IT intermediary norms, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Citizens, tech companies served better with some regulation: Facebook India MD Ajit Mohan, ET Tech report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 27] Balance benefits of internet, data security: Google CEO Sundar Pichai, ET Tech report; Business Today report.

Free Speech

  • [Sep 25] Jadavpur University calls upon ‘stakeholders’ to ensure free speech on campus, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 28] RSS raises objections to uncensored content of Maoj Bajpayee’s “The Family Man”, The Hindu report; Outlook report.

Privacy and Data Protection

  • [Sep 23] A landmark decision on Tuesday could radically reshape how Google’s search results work, Business Insider report.
  • [Sep 23] Google tightens its voice assistant rules amidst privacy backlash, Wired report.
  • [Sep 24] Dell rolls out new data protection storage appliances and capabilities, ZDNet report.
  • [Sep 24] ‘Right to be forgotten’ privacy rule is limited by Europe’s top court, The New York Times report; Live Law report.
  • [Sep 27] Nigeria launches investigation into Truecaller for potential breach of privacy, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 29] Right to be forgotten will be arduous as India frames data protection law, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 30] FPIs move against data bill, seek exemption, ET Telecom report; Entrackr report.

Data Localisation

  • [Sep 26] Reconsider imposition of data localisation: IAMAI report, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Why data is not oil: Here’s how India’s data localisation norms will hurt the economy, Inc42 report.

Digital Payments and Fintech

  • [Sep 23] RBI rider on credit bureau data access has Fintech in a quandary, ET Tech report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Sep 23] Facebook reveals Libra currency basket breakdown, Coin Desk report.
  • [Sep 23] The face of India’s crypto lobby readies for a clash, Ozy report.
  • [Sep 23] Why has Brazil’s Central Bank included crypto assets in trade balance? Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 24] French retailers widening crypto acceptance, Tech Xplore report.
  • [Sep 26] Why crypto hoaxes are so successful, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 26] South Africa: the net frontier for crypto exchanges, Coin Telegraph report
  • [Sep 27] The crypto wars’ strange bedfellows, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 28] Crypto industry is already preparing for Google’s ‘quantum supremacy’, Decrypt report.
  • [Sep 29] How crypto gambling is regulated around the world, Coin Telegraph report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [Sep 29] New WhatsApp and Facebook Encryption ‘Backdoors’ – What’s really going on, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 28] Facebook, WhatsApp will have to share messages with UK Government, Bloomberg report.
  • [Sep 23] Secret FBI subpoenas scoop up personal data from scores of companies, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 23] ‘Don’t transfer the WhatsApp traceability case’, Internet Freedom Foundation asks Supreme Court, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 24] China offers free subway rides to citizens who register their face with surveillance system, The Independent report.
  • [Sep 24] Facial recognition technology in public housing prompts backlash, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 24] Facebook-Aadhaar linkage and WhatsApp traceability: Supreme Court says government must frame rules, CNBC TV18 report.
  • [ep 27] Fashion that counters surveillance cameras, Business Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Unnao rape case: Delhi court directs Apple to give Sengar’s location details on day of alleged rape, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 27] Face masks to decoy t-shirts: the rise of anti-surveillance fashion, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 30] Battle for privacy and encryption: WhatsApp and government head for a showdown on access to messages, ET Prime report.
  • [Sep 29] Improving digital evidence sharing, Scottish Government news report; Public technology report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 23] Government launches internet facilitation centre in Pulwama for students, Times of India report; Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 23] Army chief rejects ‘clampdown’ in Jammu and Kashmir, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 24] Rising power: Why India has faced muted criticism over its Kashmir policy, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 24] ‘Restore Article 370, 35A in Jammu and Kashmir, withdraw army, paramilitary forces’: 5-member women’s group will submit demands to Amit Shah, Firstpost report.
  • [Sep 24] No normalcy in Kashmir, says fact finding team, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 25] End clampdown: Kashmir media, The Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 25] Resolve Kashmir issue through dialogue and not through collision: Erdogan, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 25] Rajya Sabha deputy chair thwarts Pakistan’s attempt at Kashmir at Eurasian Conference, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 25] Pakistan leader will urge UN intervention in Kashmir, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 25] NSA Ajit Doval back in Srinagar to review security situation, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Communication curbs add fresh challenge to Kashmir counter-insurgency operations, News18 report.
  • [Sep 27] Fresh restrictions in parts of Kashmir, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 27] US wants ‘rapid’ easing of Kashmir restrictions, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 27] Kashmir issue: Rescind action on Art. 370, OIC tells India, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 28] India objects to China’s reference to J&K and Ladakh at UNGA, The Economic Times report; The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 29] Surveillance, area domination operations intensified in Kashmir, The Economic Times report; Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 29] Police impose restrictions in J&K after Imran Khan’s speech at UNGA, India Today report.

Internal Security: NRC and the North-East

  • [Sep 23] Assam framing cyber security policy to secure data related to NRC, police, services, The Economic Times report; Money Control report.
  • [Sep 24] BJP will tell SC that we reject this NRC, says Himanta Biswa Sarma, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 24] Amit Shah to speak on NRC, Citizenship Amendment Bill in Kolkata on Oct 1, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 26] ‘Expensive’ legal battle for those rejected in Assam NRC final list, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Scared of NRC? Come back in 2022, The Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 27] Voters left out of NRC will have right to vote, rules Election Commission, India Today report; The Wire report.
  • [Sep 27] NRC: Assam government announces 200 Foreigners Tribunals in 33 districts, Times Now report; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 28] Judge urges new FT members to examine NRC claims with utmost care, Times of India report.

National Security Legislation

  • [Sep 23] Centre will reintroduce Citizenship Bill in Parliament: Himanta Biswa Sarma, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 26] National Security Guard: History, Functions and Operations, Jagran Josh report.
  • [Sep 28] Left parties seek revocation of decision on Article 370, The Tribune India report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 25] Army to start using Artificial Intelligence in 2-3 years: South Western Army commander, The Print report; India Today report; The New Indian Express report; Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 23] Modi, Trump set new course on terrorism, border security, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 23] PM Modi in the US” Trump promises more defence deals with India, military trade to go up, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 23] Punjab police bust terror module supplied with weapons by drones from Pak, NDTV report.
  • [Sep 26] Lockheed Martin to begin supplying F-16 wings from Hyderabad plant in 2020, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 26] Drones used for cross-border arms infiltration in Punjab a national security issues, says Randhawa, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 27] UK MoD sets up cyber team for secure innovation, UK Authority report.
  • [Sep 29] New tri-services special ops division, meant for surgical strikes, finishes first exercise today, The Print report.
  • [Sep 30] After Saudi attacks, India developing anti-drone technology to counter drone menace, Eurasian Times report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Sep 20] Microsoft will offer free Windows 7 support for US election officials through 2020, Cyber Scoop report.
  • [Sep 26] Social media platforms to follow ‘code of ethics’ in all future elections: EC, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 28] Why is EC not making ‘authentic’ 2019 Lok Sabha results public? The Quint report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Sep 24] Androids and iPhones hacked with just one WhatsApp click – and Tibetans are under attack, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 25] Sharp questions can help board oversee cybersecurity, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Sep 25] What we know about CrowdStrike, the cybersecurity firm trump mentioned in Ukraine call, and its billionaire CEO, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 25] 36% smaller firms witnessed data breaches in 2019 globally, ET Rise report.
  • [Sep 28] Defence Construction Canada hit by cyber attack – corporation’s team trying to restore full IT capability, Ottawa Citizen report.
  • [Sep 29] Experts call for collective efforts to counter cyber threats, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 29] Microsoft spots malware that turns PCs into zombie proxies, ET Telecom report
  • [Sep 29] US steps up scrutiny of airplane cybersecurity, The Wall Street Journal report.

Cyberwarfare

  • [Sep 24] 27 countries sign cybersecurity pledge urging rules-based control over cyberspace in Joint Statement, with digs at China and Russia, CNN report; IT world Canada report; Meri Talk report.
  • [Sep 26] Cyber Peace Institute fills a critical need for cyber attack victims, Microsoft blog.
  • [Sep 29] Britain is ‘at war every day’ due to constant cyber attacks, Chief of the Defence Staff says, The Telegraph report.

Telecom and 5G

  • [Sep 27] Telcos’ IT investments intact, auto companies may slow pace: IBM exec, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 29] Telecom players to lead digital transformation in India, BW Businessworld report.

More on Huawei

  • [Sep 22] Huawei confirms another nasty surprise for Mate 30 buyers, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 23] We’re on the same page with government on security: Huawei, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 24] The debate around 5G’s safety is getting in the way of science, Quartz report (paywall).
  • [Sep 24] Govt will take call on Huawei with national interest in mind: Telecom Secy, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 24] Huawei enables 5G smart travel system at Beijing airport, Tech Radar report.
  • [Sep 25] Huawei 5G backdoor entry unproven, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 25] US prepares $1 bn fund to replace Huawei ban kit, Tech Radar report.
  • [Sep 26] Google releases large dataset of deepfakes for researchers, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 26] Huawei willing to license 5G technology to a US firm, The Hindu Business Line report; Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 26] Southeast Asia’s top phone carrier still open to Huawei 5G, Bloomberg report.
  • [Sep 29] Russia rolls out the red carpet for Huawei over 5G, The Economic Times report.

Emerging Tech and AI

  • [Sep 20] Google researchers have reportedly achieved “Quantum Supremacy”, Financial Times report; MIT Technology Review report
  • [Sep 23] Artificial Intelligence revolution in healthcare in India: All we need to know, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Sep 23] A new joystick for the brain-controlled vehicles of the future, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 24] Computing and AI: Humanistic Perspectives from MIT, MIT News report.
  • [Sep 24] Emerging technologies such as AI, 5G posing threats to privacy, says report, China Daily report.
  • [Sep 25] Alibaba unveils chip developed for artificial intelligence era, Financial Times report.
  • [Sep 26] Pentagon wants AI to interpret ‘strategic activity around the globe, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 27] Only 10 jobs created for every 100 jobs taken away by AI, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 27] Experts say these emerging technologies should concern us, Business Insider report.
  • [Sep 27] What is on the horizon for export controls on ‘emerging technologies’? Industry comments may hold a clue, Modaq.com report.
  • [Sep 27] India can become world leader in artificial intelligence: Vishal Sikka, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 27] Elon Musk issues a terrifying prediction of ‘AI robot swarms’ and huge threat to mankind, The Daily Express (UK) report
  • [Sep 27] Russia’s national AI Centre is taking shape, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 29] Explained: What is ‘quantum supremacy’, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 29] Why are scientists so excited about a new quantum computing milestone?, Scroll.in report.
  • [Sep 29] Artificial Intelligence has a gender bias problem – just ask Siri, The Wire report.
  • [Sep 29] How AI is changing the landscape of digital marketing, Inc42 report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 21] Wim Zijnenburg, Defense One, Time to Harden International Norms on Armed Drones.
  • [Sep 23] David Sanger and Julian Barnes, The New York Times, The urgent search for a cyber silver bullet against Iran.
  • [Sep 23] Neven Ahmad, PRIO Blog, The EU’s response to the drone age: A united sky.
  • [Sep 23] Bisajit Dhar and KS Chalapati Rao, The Wire, Why an India-US Free Trade Agreement would require New Delhi to reorient key policies.
  • [Sep 23] Filip Cotfas, Money Control, Five reasons why data loss prevention has to be taken seriously.
  • [Sep 23] NF Mendoza, Tech Republic, 10 policy principles needed for artificial intelligence.
  • [Sep 24] Ali Ahmed, News Click, Are Indian armed forces turning partisan? : The changing civil-military relationship needs monitoring.
  • [Sep 24] Editorial, Deccan Herald, A polity drunk on Aadhaar.
  • [Sep 24] Mike Loukides, Quartz, The biggest problem with social media has nothing to do with free speech.
  • [Sep 24] Ananth Padmanabhan, Medianama, Civilian Drones: Privacy challenges and potential resolution. 
  • [Sep 24] Celine Herwijer and Dominic Kailash Nath Waughray, World Economic Forum, How technology can fast-track the global goals.
  • [Sep 24] S. Jaishankar, Financial Times, Changing the status of Jammu and Kashmir will benefit all of India.
  • [Sep 24] Editorial, Livemint, Aadhaar Mark 2.
  • [Sep 24] Vishal Chawla, Analytics India Magazine, AI in Defence: How Indi compares to US, China, Russia and South Korea.
  • [Sep 25] Craig Borysowich, IT Toolbox, Origin of Markets for Artificial Intelligence.
  • [Sep 25] Sudeep Chakravarti, Livemint, After Assam, NRC troubles may visit ‘sister’ Tripura.
  • [Sep 25] DH Kass, MSSP Blog, Cyber Warfare: New Rules of Engagement?
  • [Sep 25] Chris Roberts, Observer, How artificial intelligence could make nuclear war more likely.
  • [Sep 25] Ken Tola, Forbes, What is cybersecurity?
  • [Sep 25] William Dixon and  Jamil Farshchi, World Economic Forum, AI is transforming cybercrime. Here’s how we can fight back.
  • [Sep 25] Patrick Tucker, Defense One, Big Tech bulks up its anti-extremism group. But will it do more than talk?
  • [Sep 26] Udbhav Tiwari, Huffpost India, Despite last year’s Aadhaar judgement, Indians have less privacy than ever.
  • [Sep 26] Sylvia Mishra, Medianama, India and the United States: The time has come to collaborate on commercial drones.
  • [Sep 26] Subimal Bhattacharjee, The Hindu Business Line, Data flows and our national security interests.
  • [Sep 26] Ram Sagar, Analytics India Magazine, Top countries that are betting big on AI-based surveillance.
  • [Sep 26] Patrick Tucker, Defense One, AI will tell future medics who lives and who dies on the battlefield.
  • [Sep 26] Karen Hao, MIT Technology Review, This is how AI bias really happens – and why it’s so hard to fix.
  • [Sep 27] AG Noorani, Frontline, Kashmir dispute: Domestic or world issue?
  • [Sep 27] Sishanta Talukdar, Frontline, Final NRC list: List of exclusion.
  • [Sep 27] Freddie Stuart, Open Democracy, How facial recognition technology is bringing surveillance capitalism to our streets.
  • [Sep 27] Paul de Havilland, Crypto Briefing, Did Bitcoin crash or dip? Crypto’s trajectory moving forward.
  • [Sep 28] John Naughton, The Guardian, Will advances in quantum computing affect internet security?
  • [Sep 28] Suhrith Parthasarathy, The Hindu, The top court and a grave of freedom.
  • [Sep 28] Kazim Rizvi, YourStory, Data Protection Authority: the cornerstone to implement data privacy.
  • [Sep 28] Shekhar Gupta, The Print, Modi has convinced the world that Kashmir is India’s internal affair – but they’re still watching.
  • [Sep 29] Indrani Bagchi, The Economic Times, Why india needs to tread carefully on Kashmir.
  • [Sep 29] Medha Dutta Yadav, The New Indian Express, Data: Brave new frontier.
  • [Sep 29] Jon Markman, Forbes, New cybersecurity companies have their heads in the cloud.
  • [Sep 29] Editorial, The New York Times, On cybersecurity: Two scoops of perspective.
  • [Sep 30] Kuldip Singh, The Quint, New IAF Chief’s appointment: Why RKS Bhadauria must tread lightly.
  • [Sep 30] Karishma Koshal, The Caravan, With the data-protection bill in limbo, these policies contravene the right to privacy.

[September 16-23] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

Cybersecurity experts warned of a new ‘SIM jacking’ threat, the Kerala High Court recognizes a right to access internet as the internet shutdown in Kashmir entered its 50th day; more updates on the linkage of Aadhaar with voter IDs and social media as the Indian Army braces itself to adopt AI – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security.

Aadhaar

  • [Sep 16] Here are the amendments the Election Commission wants to the Representation of the People Act for Aadhaar-Voter ID linkage, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] Why Maj. Gen. Vombatkere has challenged Aadhaar Amendment Act in the Supreme Court; On WhatsApp and traceability, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 19] Drop in Aadhaar enrolments in J&K, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 20] In-principle decision to link Aadhaar with GST registration, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 23] Aadhaar card is now mandatory for nominees of your EPF account, Livemint report.

Digital India

  • [Sep 18] Indo-US ICT working group to meet on Sept 30, Oct 1, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 17] NITI Aayog frames guidelines for automated inspection of vehicles, ET Auto report.
  • [Sep 17] What TikTok told MEITY about its intermediary status, data collection, and policies for children, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] Soon, lands will have Aadhaar-like unique numbers, The Economic Times report; Business Today report.
  • [Sep 18] Drones to be used to digitally map India: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] PMO panel to release policy to boost handset manufacturing in India: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 19] Karnataka to set up exclusive body to boost innovation, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 20] ‘Right To Access Internet Is Part Of Right To Privacy And Right To Education’: Kerala HC, Live Law report; Hindu report; NDTV report.

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [Sep 15] Privacy debate between govt, Facebook continues; no winner yet, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 16] Singapore, Philippines sign MoU on personal data protection, The Manila Times report.
  • [Sep 16] Industry wants careful drafting of regulations on non-personal data, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 16] Here are the top three reasons why data protection is required in every business, Firstpost report.
  • [Sep 20] Sensitive, super-sensitive data must be stored locally in india: RS PRasad, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 20] Yet another data leak in Indian government database, exoposes multiple citizen IDs, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 22] Infosys co-founder Kris Gopalakrishnan to lead panel on protection of non-personal data, Financial Express report.

E-Commerce

  • [Sep 16] Odisha government makes e-marketplace mandatory for procurements, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 16] US antitrust officials investigate Amazon’s marketplace practices, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 17] Ministry of COnsumer Affairs extends deadline for comments on draft E-Commerce Guidelines 2019 to October 31, Medianama report.

FinTech and Digital Payments

  • [Sep 16] WhatsApp to roll out its payment services by end of this year: report, Medianama report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 18] RBI proposes norms to regulate payment gateways and payment aggregators, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 19] Regulatory shock for fintech firms: RBI blocks unregulated access to consumer credit history, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 19] DSCI, MeitY and Google India join hands for ‘Digital Payment Abhiyan’, The Economic Times report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Sep 16] The toss of a Bitcoin: How crypto ban will hurt 5 mn Indians, 20k Blockchain developers, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 16] US Sanctions three alleged crypto hacking groups from North Korea, Coin Desk report.
  • [Sep 16] Crypto firms assess how to comply with anti-money laundering standards, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Sep 19] Bitcoin and crypto wallets are now being targeted by malware, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 21] Weekends are for Altcoins when it comes to crypto market gains, ET Markets report.
  • [Sep 21] Chinese officials surprisingly chill on crypto, Decrypt report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Sep 13] Ransomware has a new target, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 16] Deep learning and machine learning to transform cybersecurity, Tech Wire Asia report.
  • [Sep 16] America needs a whole-of-society approach to cybersecurity. ‘Grand Challenges’ can help, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 17] Financial asset firm PCI ordered to pay $1.5 million for poor cybersecurity practices, ZD Net report.
  • [Sep 20] Current Act outdated, need to include cyber security in IT legal framework: DCA chief, The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 20] 10% of IT budget should be used for cybersecurity: Rear Admiral Mohit Gupta, ET Times report.
  • [Sep 20] Once hacked, twice shy: How auto supplier Harman learned to fight cyber car jackers, ET Auto report.
  • [Sep 21] Cybersecurity a big opportunity for telcos, says IBM executive, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 23] Cybersecurity experts raise alarm over new SIM jacking threat, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 23] Cybersecurity: Tackling the menace of phishing, Financial Express report.

Tech and Law Enforcement; Surveillance

  • [Sep 15] Facebook moots ‘prospective’ solution to WhatsApp issue; India stands firm on traceability, Business Today report; Livemint report.
  • [Sep 18] Chinese firms are driving the rise of AI surveillance across Africa, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 18] Documents reveal how Russia taps phone companies for surveillance, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Sep 20] WhatsApp traceability case petitioner asks court to remove Aadhaar from the plea, consider only ‘authorised govt proofs’, Medianama report; Inc42 report; Bar & Bench report.
  • [Sep 20] Chennai-based KPost says traceability is possible, wants to be impleaded in WhatsApp case, Medianama report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 13] Pentagon’s former top hacker wants to inject some Silicon Valley into the defense industry, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 16] Here’s how startups are helping the Defence Ministry up its game, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 16] After 6 years in exile, Edward Snowden explains himself, Wired report.
  • [Sep 17] US tells Saudi Arabia oil attacks were launched from Iran, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Sep 17] Why Rafale jets may be inducted into IAF by next summer only, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 17] US Air Force to shift billions of dollars to network its weapons, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 18] India to achieve US$26 billion defence industry by 2025: Defence Minister, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 18] Mitigating security risks from emerging technologies, Army Technology analysis.
  • [Sep 18] Revised draft defence procurement norms to be ready by November end, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 20] The NSA is running a satellite hacking experiment, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 20] Army to host seminar on artificial intelligence next week; seeks to enhance lethality, The Economic Times report; India Today report; The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 20] Defence Procurement: Not a level playing field for private sector, PSUs still rule, Bharat Shakti report.
  • [Sep 20] Indian Air Force ‘accepts’ Rafale, formal hand over on Dussehra, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 22] Amid US-India blooming ties, Washington prepares to take down Indian air defence systems, EurAsian Times report.
  • [Sep 23] Government likely to order 36 more Rafale fighter jets, The Economic Times report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Sep 20] Social media companies raise concerns over Election Commission’s voluntary code of ethics, Medianama report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 16] Supreme Court says normalcy to return to Kashmir but with national security in mind, India Today report.
  • [Sep 16] Farooq Abdullah booked under Public Safety Act, committee to decide duration of arrest: report, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 17] Amnesty’s report on the (mis)use of Public Safety Act in J&K counters the govt’s narrative, Youth ki Awaaz report.
  • [Sep 18] China says Kashmir issue may not be a ‘major topic’ during Modi-Xi meet, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 19] In Pakistan-held Kashmir, growing calls for independence, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 20] Kashmir residents say they are being charged by telcos despite no service, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 20] UN Chief could discuss Kashmir issues at UNGA: UN spokesman, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 20] How military drones are becoming deadly weapons across the globe, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 22] Modi’s Digital India comes crashing down in Kashmir’s longest ever internet gag, The Wire report; The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 23] No clampdown in Kashmir, only communication line of terrorists stopped: Army Chief Bipin Rawat, India Today report.

Internal Security: NRC

  • [Sep 16] Those declared foreigners cannot file NRC appeal, say Assam govt, Hindustan Times report.
  • [Sep 18] NRC in Haryana, The Tribune report.
  • [Sep 18] NRC is an internal exercise, sovereign right of a country: EAM Jaishankar, Outlook report.
  • [Sep 18] Government will implement NRC across the country: Amit Shah, The Economic Times report.; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 21] NRC Officials issue public advisory against collection of identification documents, Guwahati Plus report.
  • [Sep 22] NRC-exluded Gurkhas not to approach foreigners’ Tribunals, seek empowered panel, The Hindu report; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 14] Final Assam NRC list, with 1.9 million exclusions, published online, Hindustan Times report.

National Security Law

  • [Sep 17] Pulwama to Aug 5: Delhi HC indicted govt for PSA arrests – in 80 pc cases, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 16] What is the Public Safety Act under which Farooq Abdullah has been detained? News Nation report.
  • [Sep 16] 52 years on, still no sign of national defence university, The Times of India report.
  • [Sep 16] NSA Doval gets national security, foreign policy as PMO defines roles of top officials, The Asian Age report.

Big Tech

  • [Sep 15] Facebook VP Nick Clegg says India’s policies will decide the fate of the internet, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 17] Facebook Establishes Structure and Governance for an Independent Oversight Board, Facebook Newsroom announcement; Medianama report.
  • [Sep 19] Facebook expands definition of terrorist organization to limit extremism, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 22] Facebook is experimenting ith AI that lets you digitally get dressed, The Source report.
  • [Sep 23] Google braces for landmark global privacy ruling, Bloomberg report.

Telecom/5G

  • [Sep 16] 5G spectrum auction this year or in early 2020: Telecom Minister RS Prasad, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 20] TRAI opens consultation process for mergers and transfers in telecom sector, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 23] Indian masses have to wait 5-6 years to get true 5G experience, ET Telecom report.

More on Huawei

  • [Sep 17] Facing US ban, Huawei emerging as stronger tech competitor, The Hindu Business Line report, The Diplomat report.
  • [Sep 18] Huawei’s big test will be trying to sell a device with no Google apps outside China, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 18] Huawei users at risk as US blacklist cuts access to shared data on new cyber threats, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 20] Huawei makes sizeable 5G progress, bags 60 contracts: Ken Hu, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 21] Huawei unveils 5G training center in UK, ET Telecom report.

AI and Emerging Tech

  • [Sep 14] Artificial intelligence only goes so far in today’s economy, says MIT study, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 16] The US Govt will spend $1 bn on AI next year – not counting the Pentagon, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 18] Facial recognition systems to debut at Pune airport by 2020: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] AI stats news: AI is actively watching you in 75 countries, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 18] The Intel community ants to identify people from hundreds of yards away, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 19] Google setting up AI lab ‘Google Research India’ in Bengaluru, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 20] India is planning a huge China-style facial recognition program, The Economic Times report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 15] Nitin Pai, Livemint, The geopolitical profile of India tracks the economy’s trajectory.
  • [Sep 16] Paul Ravindranath, Tech Circle, Inclusion in technology is a compelling economic and business case.
  • [Sep 16] Markandey Katju, The Hindu, The litmus test for free speech.
  • [Sep 16] Vishal Chawla, Analytics India Magazine, What India can take away from Google’s settlement on employees’ freedom of expression.
  • [Sep 16] Editorial, Times of India, All talk: Fate of national defence university shows apathy towards defence modernisation.
  • [Sep 16] Jeff Hussey, Forbes, The gap between strong cybersecurity and demands for connectivity is getting massive.
  • [Sep 16] Kai Sedgwick, Bitcoin.com, How crypto became a gamblers paradise.
  • [Sep 17] Ajai Shukla, Business Standard, In picking strategic partners, the defence ministry isn’t spoilt for choice.
  • [Sep 17] Anthony Pfaff, Defense One, The Saudi-Oil attacks aren’t game changing. The Show how the Game has changed.
  • [Sep 17] Kayla Matthews, Security Boulevard, Who’s financially responsible for cybersecurity breaches?
  • [Sep 17] Anirudh Gotety, ET Markets, Check crypto trade, ban won’t help.
  • [Sep 17] PS Ahluwalia, Livemint, Rafale will add heft to IAF’s deterrence capabilities.
  • [Sep 17] Lorand Laksai, Privacy International, How China is supplying surveillance technology and training around the world.
  • [Sep 18] Tabish Khair, The Hindu, In Kashmir, shaking the apple tree.
  • [Sep 18] Catrin Nye, BBC News, Live facial recognition surveillance ‘must stop’ .
  • [Sep 18] Privacy International, the EU funds surveillance around the world: here’s what must be done about it.
  • [Sep 18] Joshua P Meltzer and Cameron F. Kerry, Brookings Institution, Cybersecurity and digital trade: Getting it right.
  • [Sep 19] Lt Gen HS Panag, The Print, Amit Shah’s political aim to recover PoK is not backed by India’s military capacity.
  • [Sep 20] Rifat Fareed, Al Jazeera, Farooq Abdullah’s arrest leaves India with few allies in Kashmir.
  • [Sep 22] Air Marshal (retd) M Matheswaran, Deccan Herald, Time for structural reforms, modernisation.

CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy [August 26-September 2]

MeitY sought views on ‘non-personal data’; India and France announce joint research consortium on AI and digital partnership after NSA-level talks; Section 144 CrPC imposed in areas of Assam anticipating unrest after the publication of the NRC list as the MHA holds a high-level security meet on Kashmir; and the tussle between MeitY and the Niti Aayog for control over the Rs. 7000 cr AI project continues – presenting this week’s most important developments at the intersection of law and tech.

Aadhaar

  • [Aug 27] Aadhaar integration can weed out fake voters: UIDAI’s Ajay Bhushan Pandey, Business Standard report.
  • [Aug 27] Government to intensify Aadhaar enrolment in J&K after Oct 31: Report, Medianama report; Times Now report; The Quint report
  • [Aug 27] Interview: Why I filed a case to link Aadhaar and Social Media Accounts, The Quint report.
  • [Aug 27] Aadhaar database cannot be hacked even after a billion attempts: Ravi shankar Prasad, Money Control report.
  • [Aug 27] Most dangerous situation: Justice Srikrishna on EC-Aadhaar linking, The Quint report.
  • [Aug 28] Aadhaar ads to women’s problems in India. Here’s why. The Wire report.
  • [Aug 28] What Centre will tell Supreme Court on Aadhaar and social media account linkage, The Hindustan Time report.
  • [Aug 28] All residents of an MP village have the same date of birth on their Aadhaar, Business Standard report.
  • [Aug 29] Blood banks advised to ask for donors’ Aadhaar cards, Times of India report.
  • [Aug 29] Aadhaar continues to evolve and grow as India issues biometric seafarers’ ID, Biometric Update report.
  • [Aug 31] Aadhaar mandatory for farmers to avail crop loan in Odisha, Odisha Sun Times report.
  • [Sep 1] NRIs to get Aadhaar sans 180-day wait in 3 months, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 1] Aadhaar-liquor link to check bottle littering? Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 1] Linking Aadhaar with social media can lead to insidious profiling of people, says Apar Gupta, Times of India report.

Digital India

  • [Aug 27] NASSCOM-DSCI on National Health Stack: separate regulatory body for health, siloed registries, usage of single ID, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] Govt looks to develop electronics component manufacturing base in India: MeitY Secretary, YourStory report; Money Control report.
  • [Aug 30] India is encouraging foreign firms to shift biz from China: report, Medianama report; Reuters report.
  • [Aug 30] Wipro, Google to speed up digital shift of enterprises, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 30] Government committed to reach public via technology, Times of India report.
  • [Aug 31] MeitY and Google tie up to Build for Digital India, Livemint report; India TV report; ANI report; The Statesman report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 1] Govt is setting up high-tech R&D facilities for India Inc to encourage big-bang projects, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 1] Digitalisation is now forcing NASSCOM to reinvent itself, ET Tech report.

Free Speech

  • [Aug 26] IAS Officer who quit over ‘losing freedom of expression’ was facing disciplinary action for misconduct, Swarajya Magazine report.
  • [Aug 27] Withdraw media curbs in Kashmir, The Hindu report.
  • [Aug 27] EU data caught in Facebook audio transcribing, Politico report.
  • [Aug 30] BJP issues gag order on Pragya Thakur after ‘black magic’ remark post Arun Jaitley’s death. News 18 report.
  • [Aug 31] Chargesheet filed against ex-Union Minister Salman Khurshid over remark in UP CM Yogi Adityanath, India Today report.
  • [Aug 31] Rafale deal: Rahul Gandhi summoned by Mumbai court for calling Narendra Modi ‘commander-in-thief’, Scroll.in report.
  • [Aug 31] Media freedom being curbed, says Mamata, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 1] Madurai man booked for Facebook post against Centre, Army, Times of India report.

Internet Shutdowns

  • [Aug 26] Internet suspended in Indonesia’s Papua region for ‘ security and order’ amid protests, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 29] Months after pledge to open internet, Ethiopia disrupts connectivity amidst communal violence, Global Voices report.

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [Aug 27] Government’s approach to data is dangerous, says Justice Srikrishna, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] Microsoft’s lead EU data watchdog is looking into fresh Windows 10 privacy concerns, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Aug 30] This Week in Tech: Facebook’s privacy pivot (business model not included), The New York Times report.
  • [Aug 31] MeitY seeks views on non-personal data, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 31] Google to pay out $150-200m over YouTube privacy claims: reports, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 2] Let data protection Bill deal with personal health data, says IAMAI, Business Standard report.

Intermediary Liability

  • [Aug 27] Government notices and issue in TikTok’s ShareChat notices: To ask TikTok how its intermediary status is consistent with claims on owning content, ET Telecom report; Inc42 report.

E-Commerce

  • [Aug 27] Thailand to tax e-commerce companies from next year, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] NRAI sends notices to Swiggy, Zomato, others on deep discounting, lack of transparency, Tech Circle report.
  • [Aug 29] MeitY may not include E-commerce data in privacy bill, The Economic Times report; Medianama report; Inc42 report.
  • [Aug 29] 30% local sourcing FDI rule on single brand retailers relaxed, physical stores before online sales not necessary, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 29] Amazon moves Supreme Court against direct selling companies: Report, Medianama report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 30] India big enough for both e-commerce and small retailers: Rajiv umar, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 30] Zomato, Swiggy and NRAI discuss issues, to meet again in September, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 30] DPIIT asks e-commerce firms to upload FDI compliance certifications, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 31] Why restaurants and aggregators are locking horns over discounts, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 31] CAIT slams Amazon in public discussion over deep discounting, Entrackr report.
  • [Aug 31] E-marketplaces giving preferential treatment to come: Sellers, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 2] Swiggy likely to cap restaurant commissions at 25%, ET Tech report.

Digital Payments and FinTech

  • [Aug 30] Another extension for e-wallets: RBI gives 6 months to complete KYC, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 2] Banks may take 3 years for tech merger, ET Tech report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Aug 25] IRS sends new round of letter to Bitcoin and Crypto holders, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Aug 26] 25]year old Bitcoin seller faces life sentence for unlicensed exchange, Coin Desk report.
  • [Aug 26] Telegram’s 300 million users could soon be trading Bitcoin and Crypto- Despite serious security warning, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] Crypto-jacking virus infects 850,000 serves, hackers run off with millions, Coin Desk report.
  • [Aug 30] UN Official: Crypto makes policing child trafficking ‘exceptionally difficult’, Coin Desk report.
  • [Aug 30] How do we get crypto currency to circulate as money? This experiment might hold the answer, The Print report.
  • [Aug 30] Privacy in Crypto: The Impact of Rising Terrorism Concerns, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] Telegram to release its cryptocurrency by October 31, Medianama report; ET Markets report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [Aug 26] End-to-end encryption not essential to WhatsApp as a platform: Tamil Nadu Advocate General, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] WhatsApp traceability vulnerable to falsification, claims IFF expert submission, Firstpost report; Medianama report.
  • [Aug 31] A new kind of cybercrimes uses AI and your voice against you, Quartz report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Aug 26] Russia to supply critical components of Gaganyaan, Free Press Journal report.
  • [Aug 26] CAG report on offset deal in Rafale contract to be tabled in Winter Session: Report, News Nation report.
  • [Aug 27] Gaganyaan Mission: Russia to train four Indian astronauts from November, DNA India report.
  • [Aug 27] Centre inks Rs 380 cr deal with private firm for nine precision approach radars, DNA India report.
  • [Aug 27] Navy needs “assured” budget support to build capacity: CHief, The Economic Times report; The Indian Express report; Outlook India report.
  • [Aug 27] ITI Nagpur students to learn to assemble Rafale jets, The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 27] Incentivise pvt sector for defence production: Brookings, Outlook India report.
  • [Aug 28] Amazon and Microsoft unchallenged in $10bn ‘Jedi’ contract review, Financial Times report.
  • [Aug 28] India’s HAL deepens private sector engagement through Make-II initiative, Jane’s 360 report.
  • [Aug 29] NSA-level meet today, France keen to sell second batch of 36 Rafales, The Indian Express report; Financial Express report; ANI News report.
  • [Aug 30] Russia set to offer submarines during Modi-Putin summit, Defence Aviation Post report.
  • [Aug 30] India must be prepared to face any threat: Vice President Venkaiah Naidu, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Aug 31] US to use fake social media to check on people entering the country, India Today report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Aug 26] Ransomware threat raises National Guard’s role in state cybersecurity in the United States, Statescoop report.
  • [Aug 26] The Pentagon wants to bolster Defense Innovation Unit’s Cyber defenses, Nextgov report.
  • [Aug 27] The importance of training: Cybersecurity awareness as a firewall, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] Why cybersecurity is a central ingredient in evolving digital business models, Financial Express report.
  • [Aug 28] Cyber security and the finance sector: the need for stronger data protection capabilities, Security Boulevard report.
  • [Aug 28] India to unveil cybersecurity strategy policy early next year, Financial Express report; Inc42 report.
  • [Aug 28] Face it – Biometrics to be big in cybersecurity, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] MHA has taken various measures to counter cyber threat: MoS Kishan Reddy, United News of India report.
  • [Aug 30] Google says hackers have put ‘monitoring implants’ in iPhones for years, The Guardian report; DW report.
  • [Aug 30] Employee errors responsible for half of cybersecurity incidents: report, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Aug 30] Despite changes by Microsoft, Windows 10 might still be remotely spying on you, Digital Trends report.
  • [Aug 30] Only 5-10% pharma firms have cybersecurity: Expert, Times of India report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Aug 27] Kashmir updates: UN Chief urges all parties to avoid escalation, India Today report.
  • [Aug 27] Kashmir: MHA to hold high level security meet; SC will hear Faesal and Shehla Rashid, The Week report.
  • [Aug 29] There is only fear and no ‘freedom’ in the Northeast and J&K, The Wire report.
  • [Aug 29] ‘Feel unsafe at home’: J&K residents accuse security forces of raiding houses, arresting ‘innocent’ Kashmiri youth under Public Safety Act, Firstpost report.
  • [Aug 30] Jammu and Kashmir: Rumours fly thick but slow in absence of communication, The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 30] Army Chief to review security in J&K today, his first visit after Art 370 repeal, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Aug 31] Mobile services restored partially in Kashmir’s Kupwara district, ET Telecom report.

Internal Security: North East and the NRC

  • [Aug 29] Security measures tightened in Assam, Sec 144 CrPC in Guwahati ahead of final NRC, India Today report.
  • [Aug 30] Assam police declare 14 districts as sensitive areas, Times of India report.
  • [Aug 30] How the National Citizenship Registration in Assam is shaping a new national identity in India, The Conversation report.
  • [Aug 30] NRC not to solve foreigner problem: Himanta Biswa Sarma, Deccan herald report.
  • [Aug 31] No Aadhaar from elsewhere for those excluded from NRC, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 31] Assam on edge a day before publication of NRC, India Today report.
  • [Sep 1] Assam BJP, Opposition unhappy with updated NRC, India Today report.
  • [Sep 1] Assam NRC final list: Centre in no hurry for follow-up, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 1] Happy to know how many are doubtful citizens, says AIUDF, The Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 1] Indian citizens register excludes 1.9m Assam residents, Financial Times report.

Telecom/5G

  • [Aug 26] India will not compromise on security of telecom networks: Dhotre, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 27] 5G spectrum sale may be deferred to early 2020, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 27] Govt invites bids to select agency for conducting spectrum auction, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 28] Reliance Jio records highest telecom revenue market share in Q1FY20, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 31] Govt focusing on improved telecom connectivity in NE, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 28] 3G network to shut by December, 5G adoption not expected, Phonepe, Paytm and more, Medianama report.

More on Huawei

  • [Aug 26] 5G trials: China aggression will work against Huawei, say India officials, India Express report.
  • [Aug 27] New Huawei OS Shock: ‘Confirmation’ of Russian Software for mobile devices, Forbes report; Reuters report.
  • [Aug 27] Huawei: UK to make 5G decision ‘by the autumn’, BBC News report.
  • [Aug 29] Huawei’s next flagship phone blocked from using Google apps, The Guardian report.
  • [Aug 30] Huawei under probe by US prosecutors over new allegations, ET Telecom report; Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 1] Huawei just launched 5G in Russia with Putin’s Support: ‘Hello Splinternet’, Forbes report.

Emerging Tech and AI

  • [Aug 27] Niti Aayog, MeitY spar over Rs. 7,000 crore AI mission, ET Telecom report; Inc42 report; Entrackr report.
  • [Aug 27] India, France announce joint research consortium on AI and a digital partnership, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 28] Elon Musk and Jack Ma debate AI at China Summit, Bloomberg report.
  • [Aug 28] Is this Aadhaar of the future? Facial biometric technology-based chip-enabled cards issues, The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 28] National security imperative to become $5trillion economy: Amit Shah, Livemint report; The Asian Age report.
  • [Aug 29] Swedish school fined over use of facial recognition, Lexology report.

Big Tech

  • [Aug 26] India is important, that’s why bringing hardware devices here: Google, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 26] Facebook wins appeal against German Data-Collection ban, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Aug 26] Instagram’s latest assault on Snapchat is a messaging app called Threads, The Verge report.
  • [Aug 28] Google is moving Pixel production from China to an old Nokia factory in Vietnam, The Verge report.
  • [Aug 30] Google expands scope of its bug bounty programme, unveils data protection reward programme for developers, NDTV Gadgets 360 report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Aug 25] Jon Evans, Tech Crunch, Crypto means Cryptotheology.
  • [Aug 26] Guest Author, Medianama, Should Indian Copyright law prevent text and data mining?
  • [Aug 26] Vishal Chawla, Analytics India Magazine, Why IoT security standards are crucial in preventing hackers from stealing your data.
  • [Aug 26] The Hindu Editorial, ON the wrong side: On PCI backing Kashmir restrictions.
  • [Aug 26] Robert S Taylor, Lawfare, How to measure Cybersecurity.
  • [Aug 26] Mike Giglio, Defense One, China’s Spies Are on the Offensive. Can the US Fend Them Off?
  • [Aug 27] Gurshabad Grover, The Hindu, A judicial overreach into matters of regulation.
  • [Aug 27] Maj Gen Harsha Kakkar, Bharat Shakti, Foreign Policy and National Security.
  • [Aug 27] A Vinod Kumar, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, ‘No First Use’ is Not Sacrosanct: Need a Theatre-Specific Posture for Flexible Options.
  • [Aug 27] Jack Cable, Harvard Business Review, Every computer science degree should require a course in cybersecurity.
  • [Aug 27] Rahul Singh, The Hindustan Times, Key decisions underline govt’s focus on building stronger military.
  • [Aug 27] The Economic Times Opinion, Aadhaar linkage with social media is troublesome.
  • [Aug 28] Vikram Koppikar, Money Control, Aadhaar and Social Media: It’s a delicate balance between security and privacy. 
  • [Aug 28] Abhijit Singh. The Hindu, The CHief of Defence Staff needs an enabling institutional infrastructure.
  • [Aug 28] Samantha Ravish, Defense One, The US must prepare for a Cyber ‘Day After’.
  • [Aug 28] Mike Masnick, Tech Dirt, Protocols, not platformsL A technological approach to free speech.
  • [Aug 29] Dhruva Jaishankar, The Hindustan Times, The saga of India’s indigenous defence production.
  • [Aug 29] The Print, Does War & Peace taunt show how poorly equipped India judges are to handle security cases?
  • [Aug 30] Rohan Seth, The Asian Age, Wider debate needed on major changes in data protection law.
  • [Aug 30] Amit Cowshish, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, CDS: A pragmatic blueprint required for implementation.
  • [Aug 30] Crystal Lee and Jonathan Zong, Slate, Consent is not an ethical rubber stamp.
  • [Aug 30] Gopal Krishna, Business Today, Why the promised right to privacy and data protection law hasn’t been enacted yet. 
  • [Aug 31] Bidanda Chengappa, Deccan Herald, Peacetime spying is legitimate.
  • [Aug 31] Sandipan Deb, Livemint, When social media monopolies prey on freedom of expression.

[July 22-29] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

The RTI Amendment Bill was passed by both houses of the Parliament as the Government considers relaxation in proposed data localisation requirements for foreign tech firms; crypto critiques by the Garg Committee’s proposed ban; probes and penalties in the struggle to regulate global tech giants— presenting this week’s most important developments in law and tech.

Right to Information

  • [July 23] Lok Sabha passes bill to amend RTI, Oppn says centre is weakening the law, Livemint report; The Economic Times report.
  • [July 23] Lok Sabha passes RTI Amendment Bill amid Opposition uproar; what changes have been proposed under new law, Firstpost report
  • [July 24] 14 political parties from Rajya Sabha oppose the RTI amendment bill, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 24] Freedom of expression is under threat due to RTI Act amendments, say former Chief Information Commissioners, National Herald report.
  • [July 25] Rajya Sabha passes RTI amendment bill, Opposition walks out, Livemint report; India Today report; Business Standard report.

Data Protection Bill

  • [July 23] Personal data protection bill: IT Ministry may back storage curbs for critical, sensitive data, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [July 27] Policymakers a divided lot on personal data bill provisions, ET Tech report.
  • [July 27] Personal data protection bill to take care of sovereign data concerns: Govt, ET Telecom report.
  • [July 28] Data protection bill still in limbo after 1 year; Govt refuses info, The Quint report.
  • [July 28] India will never compromise on its data sovereignty: Prasad, The Economic Times report; DNA India report; Firstpost report

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [July 23] Equifax to pay $650 million for the 2017 data breach, Medianama report;  New York Times report.
  • [July 24] Facebook agrees to pay record $5 billion settlement in privacy investigation, Time magazine report; NBC news report; The Economic Times report
  • [July 25] Record Facebook fine won’t end scrutiny of the company, ET tech report.
  • [July 25] WhatsApp announces privacy investigation partnership, ET Tech report.
  • [July 25] WhatsApp to engage with policymakers to strengthen privacy, ET Telecom report.
  • [July 25] Facebook ends Microsoft, Sony access to friend data, ET Telecom report.
  • [July 25] Facebook warns of costly privacy changes, discloses another US probe, ET tech report.
  • [July 26] UK Data Protection Agency issues new guidelines for data sharing, JD Supra report.

Data Localisation

  • [July 24] Only critical information may need to be housed in India, ET Tech report.
  • [July 24] India may tweak data privacy norms to keep only critical data in country: report, The Economic Times report; Business Today report.
  • [July 26] As data localisation gathers steam, RailTel goes on cloud offensive, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [July 29] Big relief for foreign firms: Govt panel says no need to mirror personal data in India, Financial Express report; The Indian Express report.

Digital India

  • [July 22] Empowering India’s hardware startups: Qualcomm signs a technical bilateral cooperation agreement with MeitY, YourStory.com report.
  • [July 23] TRAI wants to be country’s data czar, MeitY not keen, The Economic Times report; Money Control report.
  • [July 26] India’s agricultural farms get a technology lift, ET Tech report.
  • [July 29] India’s mid-cap IT firms caught between shrinking deals and rising costs, ET tech report.

Content Regulation

  • [July 23] TikTok has removed over 60 lakh videos between July 2018 to April 2019, Medianama report
  • [July 23] Why they want TikTok banned in India, Medianama report.
  • [July 24] Over 150 cases of fake news reported during Lok Sabha elections, says Union Minister, News18 report.
  • [July 24] Over 2100 URLs on social media blocked in 2019: Prasad, The Outlook report.
  • [July 25] Govt says porn sites blocked by Jio, Airtel and others after 3 court orders, hints watching porn not illegal, India Today report.
  • [July 26] Muslim hawker beaten up over Jai Shri Ram chants in Bengal, internet suspended after tension, India Today report.
  • [July 26] Social influencers make hay while content shines, ET Tech report.
  • [July 26] POCSO amendment bill expands child porn definition to ‘any visual depiction’ of sexually explicit content involving children, Medianama report.

Aadhaar

  • [July 21] UIDAI to soon select adjudicating officer for inquiry in contravention cases, Money Control report.
  • [July 23] 100 plus e-seva centres in Chennai shut after operators lose access to Aadhaar website, Times of India report
  • [July 24] Income Tax return 2019: Compulsory mention of Aadhaar in ITR, Financial Express report.
  • [July 24] Devendra Fadnavis joins the ‘link Aadhaar with voter IDs’ bandwagon: report, Medianama report.
  • [July 25] States can now use Aadhaar data for their schemes, ET Tech report; The Hindu Business Line report, Livemint report; Money Control report.
  • [July 25] Aadhaar linking not mandatory for activation of RuPay cards, Times Now News report.
  • [July 25] Aadhaar misuse surfaces in Gurugram, The Tribune report.
  • [July 25] Providing Aadhaar details for ‘parivar pehchan patra’ purely voluntary: Khattar, The Week report.
  • [July 25] All Aadhaar issues have been settled: Nandan Nilekani, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 26] Plea against Aadhaar-vote link filed before Delhi HC, The Telegraph report.
  • [July 28] Fake Aadhaar racket busted in Andhra Pradesh, The New Indian Express report.
  • [July 28] Linking Aadhaar with election ID would disenfranchise elderly and manual labourers: ECI told, Counterview report.

E-Commerce

  • [July 22] How an in-house e-commerce platform revolutionised government procurement, ET Tech report.
  • [July 25] Shopping from Chinese e-tailers set to become more expensive, The Economic Times report; Entrackr report.
  • [July 26] Amazon engaging with Indian govt to seek stable e-commerce policy, ET Tech report.
  • [July 28] Government plans e-commerce boost for rural products, ET Tech report.
  • [July 29] Data, e-commerce laws held up as India, US talk, Hindustan Times report.

Digital payments

  • [July 26] Govt fears WhatsApp may share payment data with Facebook, others, ET Tech report.
  • [July 26] Digital payment firms wait for new finance secretary to discuss Merchant Discount rates (MDRs), ET tech report.
  • [July 27] WhatsApp’s payment service is now being tested by companies, ET Tech report.

Cryptocurrency

  • [July 22] FINRA extends deadline for firms to report crypto activity, CoinDesk report.
  • [July 22] Iran legalizes crypto mining, Coin Desk report.
  • [July 23] Inter-Ministerial Group suggests banning of private cryptocurrencies in India, The Economic Times report; Business Today report; Livemint report; Quartz report
  • [July 23] India mulling an official crypto-currency? Looks like govt veering towards the idea, The Economic Times report
  • [July 23] Swiss Data protection regulator seeks details on Facebook’s Libra, Coin telegraph report.
  • [July 24] Crypto startups say panel clueless about Distributed Ledger Tech, ET Tech report.
  • [July 24] Crypto community rails against crackdown proposed by Garg Committee, Entrackr report.
  • [July 24] Cryptocurrency ban bill: Finance Ministry wants to ban cryptocurrency, encourage blockchain, Medianama report.
  • [July 24] Panel’s cryptic stance foxes crypto investors, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 25] Investors in limbo as Centre proposes cryptocurrency ban, Times of India report.
  • [July 26] Indian government official resigns after drafting ‘flawed’ crypto bill, Bitcoin.com News report.
  • [July 27] IRS warns crypto holders: dodge tax and we’ll hand out stiff punishments, the Guardian report.
  • [July 27] Crypto mining malware targets cloud computing platforms, FX Street report.

Cybersecurity

  • [July 22] Israel to arm students on autism spectrum with cybersecurity skills, Times of Israel report.
  • [July 23] NSA to unveil a cybersecurity directorate report says, CNET report; The Wall Street Journal report; Forbes report.
  • [July 24] A contract programmer faces 10 years in jail for inserting a ‘logic bomb’ into a spreadsheet that caused the company to keep rehiring him, Business Insider report.
  • [July 25] Louisiana declares cybersecurity state of emergency after a series of attacks on school district systems, Dark Reading report.
  • [July 25] Russian hackers build fake Skype, Signal, Pornhub apps to lure victims, Defense One report.
  • [July 26] Does India have enough cybersecurity talent? Analytics India report.
  • [July 26] UK’s national Cybersecurity Centre warns over global DNS hijacking, JD Supra report.
  • [July 27] Cybersecurity spending to rise 37% in five years, The New India Express report.

Big Tech

  • [July 24] The struggle to regulate online giants like Facebook, Google, Amazon, ET Tech report.
  • [July 26] Australian anti-trust watchdog challenges market dominance of Google and Facebook in advertising and online news, Medianama report
  • [July 26] Big Tech release transparency report for the Global Internet Forum to counter terrorism, Medianama report.
  • [July 28] How regional languages are fueling You Tube’s growth in India, ET Tech report.

Emerging Tech/AI

  • [July 22] With $1 billion from Microsoft, an AI Lan wants to mimic the brain, The New York Times report; Tech Crunch report.
  • [July 23] Facial recognition: As airports in India start using the technology, how will it be regulated? Scroll.in report.
  • [July 23] How AI will help detect tiny drones 3 km away, Defense One report
  • [July 24] China’s ByteDance ventures into AI-generated music with Jukedeck deal, ET Tech report.
  • [July 24] Reliance owned Haptik aqcui-hires Los Angeles based AI startup Convrg, Tech Circle report.
  • [July 26] Facial recognition systems at IGI airport to be operational from next month: report, Medianama report.

Telecom/5G

  • [July 22] EU completes first phase of 5G cybersecurity risk assessment, RCR Wireless report.   [July 24] Top CoT panel clears Rs. 3,050 cr penalties on Airtel, Voda-Idea in PoI issue, ET Telecom report
  • [July 24] Jio is biggest mobile tower customer of BSNL, MTNL, ET Telecom report.
  • [July 25] National Security Advisory Board blows to 5G bugle: Build local muscle, get real on China, ET Prime report.

More on Huawei

  • [July 22] Huawei secretly helped build North Korea’s wireless network, leaked documents suggest, CNET report; The Guardian report.
  • [July 22] UK Government decision on 5G delayed, BBC News report.
  • [July 23] Huawei unit cuts more than 600 jobs from its US research wing following sanctions, Livemint report; Tech Crunch report.
  • [July 23] Huawei inks pact with Micromax to expand retail presence, but analysts wary of upside, The Hindu Business Line report.; Business Today report; Livemint report.
  • [July 24] Huawei faces new allegations over cybersecurity in the Czech Republic, Forbes report.
  • [July 26] China accuses FedEx of ‘holding up’ Huawei parcels, The Economic Times report.

Tech and Elections

  • [July 24] Electronic voting machines completely non-tamperable: Centre to Lok Sbaha, NDTV report.
  • [July 25] Tulsi Gabbard, Democratic Presidential Candidate, sues Google for $50 million, The New York Times report; The Wrap report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [July 25] HC pings IIT-M professor for report on WhatsApp’s traceability, ET Telecom report
  • [July 27] RAW ex-chief urges coordination between intelligence agencies, The New Indian Express report.

Tech and National Security

  • [July 22] 275 items manufactured by OFB declared “non-core”, forces can procure it from OFB or open market, The Outlook report.
  • [July 23] In first 50 days, Modi Govt spent Rs. 8500 cr on defence deals, The Economic Times report
  • [July 23] Turkey threatens retaliation if US imposes sanctions over S-400 purchase, Jane’s Defence Weekly report.
  • [July 24] In his first Defence Acquisition Council meeting, Rajnath Singh to clear projects worth Rs. 10,000 crore, Times Now news report.
  • [July 24] HC asks Centre to examine whether to restrain Google from uploading Indian maps, ET Tech report.
  • [July 24] India all set to launch first-ever space war exercise ‘IndSpaceEx’, Jagran Josh report.
  • [July 25] More autonomy for OFB under planned corporatisation but job security to go, Times of India report.
  • [July 26] India to be self-reliant in defence manufacturing in the next five years: DRDO, Times Now News report.
  • [July 28] Facial recognition is changing Customs and Border protection operations, Defense One report.
  • [July 29] Rajnath wants DAC file summaries in Hindi, India Today report.
  • [July 29] State-owned enterprises continue to dominate defence production in India, The New Delhi Times report.

National Security Law

  • [July 22] National security, welfare schemes, foreign policy tops Modi government’s agenda in first 50 days of NDA-II, Swarajya report.
  • [July 22] Will book land mafia under NSA:UP CM, Times of India report.
  • [July 25] Lok Sabha passes anti-terror bill to ban individuals too as terrorists, amid Opposition concerns over misuse, Livemint report; The Business Standard report; Time of India report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [July 21] Nitin Pai, Live Mint, Some space for the private sector in the race for space.
  • [July 22] Ankit Srivastava, New Delhi Times, Modi irradiates loopholed Defence procurement. 
  • [July 23] Yogesh Gupta, Times of India (blog), China is rapidly emerging as a technology superpower; far reaching-implications for India. 
  • [July 23] Ashit K Srivastava, The Pioneer, Achilles’ heel of data protection.
  • [July 23] Prannv Dhawan and John Simte, Deccan Herald, Dangers of regulatory approach in tackling fake news.
  • [July 23] Yaya Fanusie, Forbes, Will crypto rogues threaten the geopolitical order?
  • [July 24] Venkat Ananth and Shelley Singh, ET Tech, Big Tech and fair digital rules.
  • [July 24] Maj. Gen. Amrit Pal Singh (retd), The Tribune, National security  narrative and its economics.
  • [July 24] Rahul Matthan, Livemint, UPI is world-class and it’s time to take it international.
  • [July 25] Neiman Lab, Quartz, Should Facebook have a “quiet period” of no algorithm changes before a major election?
  • [July 26] Mishi Choudhary, Financial Express, Data safety regulation not barrier to India’s role as global destination. 
  • [July 26] Prasanto K Roy, India Today, Aadhaar: The offer you can’t refuse.
  • [July 26] Kunal Ambasta, The Indian Express, NIA Amendment Bill infringes upon state authority, must be reconsidered.
  • [July 27] Naman Pugalia, The Indian Express, Aadhaar must sync with voter IDs to empower citizens.
  • [July 27] Kalev Leetaru, Forbes, Does the Huawei debate matter when all roads in the digital world lead back to the US?
  • [July 28] Mathieu Duchatel, South China Morning Post, While weighing 5G security risks, France predicts it can manage Huawei without banning it.
  • [July 28] S Ragotham, Deccan Herald, India, with Chinese traits?
  • [July 28] Maj. Gen. Ashok Mehta, India Legal Live, Army information security: big brother is listening.
  • [July 28] Swathi Moorthy, Money Control, This week in IT: Tackling privacy breaches in an era where data is the new oil.

[July 1-July 8] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

The Union Budget for 2019-2020 brought with it a boost for using Aadhaar to file I-T returns amid escalating privacy concerns, but disappointed those hoping for larger allocations to modernisation of the armed forces. As the uncertainty over Huawei’s inclusion in 5G trials continues — presenting this week’s most important developments in law and tech.

Aadhaar

  • [July 4] Aadhaar bill seeking its use as ID to open bank account passes in Lok Sabha, India today report.
  • [July 4] UIDAI sets up first Aadhaar centres in Delhi and Vijayawada, to set up 114 more centres in 2019, Medianama report.
  • [July 5] Aadhaar ordinance: SC asks Centre, UIDAI to respond to writ petition, The Hindu report; The Economic Times report; Medianma report.
  • [July 6] Budget eases criteria of obtaining Aadhaar for NRIs with Indian passport, Business Standard report.
  • [July 6] Budget 2019 proposes to make PAN, Aadhaar interchangeable; soon you can file ITR using either of these, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 6] J&K Government approves Aadhaar linked payment mode for disbursal of pension, Business Standard report.
  • [July 7] Economic survey has based Aadhaar impact on MGNREGS on false assumptions, say researchers, The Hindu report.
  • [July 8] I-T to allot PAN to those filing returns only with Aadhaar, Live Mint report.

Internet Shutdowns

  • [July 2] India saw 11 internet shutdowns in June, 59 so far in 2019, Medianama report.
  • [July 4] Internet services in Jaipur set to resume today; parts of the city had been offline after rape of minor, Medianama report.
  • [July 4] Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp back after 8-hour outage that left users unable to upload photos, videos, Medianama report.
  • [July 5] Following communal violence, internet remains closed in Agra, India today report.

Free Speech

  • [July 3] Centre has no plans to scrap sedition law, Minister tells Rajya Sabha; The Hindu report.
  • [July 5] MDMK Chief vaiko convicted in sedition case, sentenced to one year imprisonment, The Hindu Business Line report.

Data Protection

  • [July 1] Data Protection Bill: MHA wants insulation for security agencies, The Tribune report.
  • [July 2] TikTok illegally collecting data received by China, claims Shashi Tharoor, News18 report.
  • [July 2] Tik Tok under investigation in the UK over children’s data use, The Guardian report.
  • [July 2] China’s new data protection scheme, The Diplomat report.
  • [July 3] Comprehensive legislation on data privacy under formulation: Ravi Shankar Prasad; The Economic Times report.
  • [July 4] Won’t allow abuse of Indian data by foreign powers or companies, says RS Prasad in Rajya Sabha , Medianama report.
  • [July 5] Govt needs to leverage data as public good to boost welfare of poor, Live Mint report.
  • [July 6] Economic Survey pushes for interlinking and selling citizens’ data for private purposes: Rethink Aadhaar, Money Life report.

Digital India

  • [July 4] Qualcomm India extends design challenge to MeitY supported startups, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 8] No incentive left for banks to push digital pay, fears fintech, ET Tech report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [June 30] ‘Govt Screwed Us’ Crypto Startup Coin Recoil Founder Writes An Open Letter To PM. Inc42 report.
  • [July 2] Remaining crypto exchanges in India bet on global markets, ET Tech report.
  • [July 3] Bitcoin’s energy consumption ‘equals that of Switzerland’, BBC report.
  • [July 5] Indian authorities arrest 4 individuals accused of crypto ponzi scheme, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [July 5] US lawmakers tell Facebook to halt Libra as it risks undermining dollar and upending global financial system, Medianama report.
  • [July 7] New ECB boss Christine Lagarde made a serious Bitcoin warning, Forbes report.

Telecom/5G

  • [July 3] Samsung talks about its 5G solution, readiness to work with telecom operators in India, India Today report
  • [July 2] Samsung to ramp up Internet of Things business in India after 5G roll out, Times Now News reports

More on Huawei

  • [July 3] Despite Trump’s promised reprieve, Commerce Department tells staff to continue treating Huawei as blacklisted, Tech Crunch report.
  • [July 3] Indian companies supplying (US origin equipment)  to Huawei may face US sanctions: Govt, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 4] Donald trump eases off Huawei as forms discover holes in his export ban, The Economist’s analysis.
  • [July 4] India to decide on Huawei participation in 5G trial based on security and economic interests, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 5] Huawei disputes US cyber firm’s findings of flaws in gear, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [July 6] Huawei employees linked to China’s military and intelligence, reports claim, Forbes report.
  • [July 6] Huawei is helping all the UK’s top carriers build their 5G networks, Engadget report.

Cybersecurity

  • [July 2] Air travel needs cybersecurity, now tighter than ever, Financial Express report.
  • [July 3] New Zealand updates its cybersecurity strategy, ZDNet report.
  • [July 3] Tech Mahindra, SSH to deploy cutting edge cybersecurity solutions to secure access control for enterprises, Dataquest India report.
  • [July 3] 25 Central, State govt websites hacked till May this year: Ravi Shankar Prasad; The economic Times report.
  • [July 5] Getting up to speed with AI and Cybersecurity, Tech radar explainer.
  • [July 5] The Biggest Cybersecurity Crises of 2019 so far, The Wired report.
  • [July 6] New ransomware named Sodin exploits Windows flaw identified by cybersecurity firm Kaspersky, The Indian Wire report.

Cyberwarfare

  • [July 3] Suspected Iranian Cyber Attacks Show No sign of slowing, Defense One report.
  • [July 4] Report: Pentagon should assume US satellites are already hacked, Defense One report.

Surveillance/ Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [July 1] NSAB comes up with traceability to help Whatsapp, Economic Times report
  • [July 2] China snares tourists’ phones in surveillance dragnet by adding secret app, The New York Times report; Wired report; The Guardian report.

Tech and Military

  • [July 1] Indian Air Force orders Russian-made anti-tank missiles for USD 29 million, Jane’s Defence Weekly report.
  • [July 1] Modi govt spent Rs. 2.37 lakh crore on modernisation of armed forces in 4 years, Business Today report.
  • [July 2] India’s defence budget has nearly doubled in 5 years but the money is not enough to upgrade the weapons. Business Insider report.
  • [July 4] Funds shrinking, Army wants budget 2019 to make special allowance for GST, customs duties, The Print report.
  • [July 5] Budget 2019: Experts feel not much to change for armed forces, The New Indian Express report.
  • [July 5] 0.01% – The increase in defence allocation from interim budget as modernisation put on hold, News18 report.
  • [July 5] Budget 2019: Defence gets duty exemption on imports, no big allocation, say experts, Financial Express report; The Hindu report.
  • [July 5] India outlines progress in ‘Strategic Partner’ projects, Jane’s Defense Weekly report.
  • [July 5] Defence Ministry approves Army Headquarters restructuring plans: Gen Bipin Rawat, Business Standard report.
  • [July 6] Army, Nation e-Governance Division ink pact for developing revamped app, Money Control report.
  • [July 6] MBDA, French Army team develop AI based automatic target recognition by imaging system, Defense World report.
  • [July 7] Indian Army to buy American howitzer ammo for long-range accurate strikes, The Economic Times report.
  • [July 8] DRDO carries out three successful Nag tests in one day in Pokhran, The Economic Times report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [July 1] Abhijit Kumar Dutta, Money Control, 5G test run: Is barring Huawei a good idea? Probably not.
  • [July 1] Maahi Mayuri, Mondaq News Alerts, India: Data Localisation: What’s in it for us?
  • [July 2] Allie Funk, Wired, I opted out of facial recognition at the airport – it wasn’t easy.
  • [July 3] Times of India editorial, Don’t hug Huawei: Beware of allowing Chinese firms entry into India’s 5G market.
  • [July 3] Amol Agarwal, Money Control, Facebook’s Libra currency – will it rewrite the crypto playbook?
  • [July 3] Harsh V Pant and Kartik Bommakanti, Observer Research Foundation, India’s national security challenge.
  • [July 3] Manas Chakravarty, Money Control, Why the US is targeting Huawei.
  • [July 3] India’s response to China’s cyber attacks, The Diplomat’s analysis.
  • [July 3] Rohan Venkatramakrishnan, Scroll.in, Where is the personal data protection that Indian were promised? 
  • [July 3] Business Standard editorial comment, The crypto challenge. [paywall]
  • [July 5] Key tech related takeaways from Union Budget 2019-20, Medianama summary.
  • [July 5] Afiya Qureshi, Mashable India, Indian Government plans to monitor the internet through a centralized system: should we worry?
  • [July 5] Pravin Sawhney, The Wire, Defence Budget: Skewed ratio of allocations hurts India’s war preparedness.
  • [July 5] Debajit Sarkar, Financial Express, Budget 2019: There is a need to boost defense expenditure.
  • [July 6] Sounak Mukherjee, Money Control, TMC MP Mahua Moitra’s privacy concerns on Aadhaar stand tall against FM Nirmala Sitharaman’s Budget 2019 proposals,
  • [July 6] Ivan Mehta, The Next Web, India claims its Aadhaar push is for the ‘good’ of the people despite serious privacy concerns.
  • [July 6] Ilangovan Rajasekaran, Frontline, Conviction in sedition case will not affect Vaiko’s election to Rajya Sabha.
  • [July 7] Wired Opinion, How to protect our kids’ data and privacy.
  • [July 7] Sara Harrison, Wired, Twitter’s disinformation dumps are helpful – to a point.
  • [July 7] Lt. Gen. KJ Singh, Times of India (blog), Union Budget tells armed forces to cut the coat as per cloth.

[June 24-July 1] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

With the G20 Summit in Osaka easing trade tensions between the US and China, India has seen a week of developing policy positions on data localisation, tech startups and the fate of telecom providers  — presenting this week’s most important developments in law and tech.

Aadhaar 

  • [June 24] New Aadhaar regulations by Government to bring it back in full force, will be voluntary, India Today report.
  • [June 24] Aadhaar bill introduced amid opposition protests, The Hindu report; Live Mint report.
  • [June 25] Bill on Aadhaar tabled, ‘doesn’t violate privacy’, The Tribune report.
  • [June 29] One nation, One ration card’ scheme from July 1, 2020, The Hindu report.

Internet Shutdown

  • [June 28] Myanmar: Internet Shutdown Risks Lives, Human Rights Watch report.

Free Speech

  • [June 27] Modi Government stops advertising in The Times Group, The Hindu and The Telegraph news paper, PGurus report;
  • [June 28] Modi Government freezes ads placed in Times of India, The Hindu and The Telegraph, The Wire report; The Deccan Herald report.

Data Protection

  • [June 24] UAE data protection law, similar to GDPR, likely landing this year, Tech Radar report.
  • [June 27] Home, IT Ministries discuss data protection bill, The Hindu report.
  • [June 27] National Centre being planned to hold and manage all public data, The Economic Times report; The Quint report.

Data Localisation

  • [June 26] Data storage rules out of e-commerce policy, Live Mint report; CNBC TV18 report; Medianama report.
  • [June 26] Government to decide if data issues need to be out of e-commerce policy, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 27] Personal data storage: Government not in a mood to dilute data localisation rule, Financial Express report.
  • [June 28] India stands by data localisation at G-20 summit, US opposes it, ETtech report.
  • [June 28] Data Localisation: What India can dictate, and what she can’t, Business Today report.
  • [June 29] India surrenders to US pressure on ‘data localisation’: Piyush Goyal and RBI send out confusing signals, National Herald report.

E-Commerce

  • [June 26] Not ready for global e-tail rules, India to tell G-20, ET Tech report.
  • [June 26] India to come out with national e-comm policy within 12 months: Piyush Goyal, ETtech report.
  • [June 27] The E-Commerce disaster that never was, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 30] Draft e-comm policy, data protection may figure at India-EU meet in Brussels on July 4, Your Story report.

Digital India

  • [June 26] Digital literacy drive needs more funds: MeitY, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [June 27] RBI Committee recommends setting up Universal Enterprise ID, linkage across individual and enterprise PAN, Medianama report.
  • [June 27] MeitY expenditure under Digital India at Rs. 3,328 cr in 2018-19: Ravi Shankar Prasad, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 27] SEBI approves DVRs for tech startups, ETtech report
  • [June 28] Indian startups cheer differential voting rights, ETtech report.
  • [June 28] Nitin Gadkari proposed Alibaba like platform for MSME sector, Entrackr report.
  • [June 30] India’s OTT market will grow at 21.8% CAGR, PwC report says, ET Telecom report.

Cybersecurity

  • [June 25] Digital India’s response readiness against cyber attacks is frail, lack of online security awareness biggest weakness, Firstpost report.
  • [June 27] To avoid Huawei like situation, India plans desi WhatsApp for official communication ET Telecom report; Medianama’s take.
  • [June 28] Infosys cyber security unit sees rising demand as threats mount, ET Tech report.
  • [June 29] US FDA warns of cybersecurity risk to certain Medtronic insulin pumps. Live Mint report.
  • [June 29] Indian manufacturing industry at high cyber risk, The Asian Age report.
  • [June 29] Average DNS attack cost rises by 19% to $814,150 in APAC, ET Telecom report.
  • [July 1] As cyber attacks increase, Indian IT clients seek stricter contracts, more audits, ET Tech report.
  • [July 1] China increases cybersecurity industry development, Global Times report.

Telecom/5G

  • [June 24] DoT may move SC against Airtel, Tata Tele merger, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 26] Broadband forum seeks lower 5G spectrum prices, change in auction design, ET Telecom report.
  • [June 26] Government gets 6 proposals for 5G trials, including Huawei, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 27] Lack of 4G, staff costs slow down BSNL, MTNL, ET Telecom report.
  • [June 27] DoT, MeitY eye EU ‘toolbox’ to address 5G-related concerns, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 28] Telcos’ health needs to be vetted before 5G pricing, ET Tech report.
  • [June 28] Modi, Trump discuss India-US collaboration in 5G tech, ET Tech report.
  • [June 30] DoT will move cabinet with BSNL, MTNL package: Ravi Shankar Prasad, ET Telecom report.
  • [July 1] Ericsson, Nokia assure telcos of speedy 5G rollout, ET Telecom report.

More on Huawei

  • [June 24] Huawei offers to sign ‘no-backdoor’ pact with India govt, telcos to underline security commitment: CEO, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 24] UK’s approach to Huawei is flawed warns Ericsson’s US boss, Financial Times report.
  • [June 26] Nokia warns UK over using rival Huawei’s 5G kit, BBC report.
  • [June 26] Huawei claims 50 commercial 5G deals globally amid uncertainty in India, ET Telecom report.
  • [June 26] US-China trade war in 10 dates, ET Telecom report.
  • [June 26], Huawei’s telecom equipment is more likely to have flaws than rivals’ claims report by US cybersecurity company Finite State, Tech Radar report.
  • [June 26] India, US to discuss Huawei’s role in 5G trials, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 26] India may let Huawei conduct 5G trials defying trump ban, International Business Times report.
  • [June 27] Tech companies find legal ways around Huawei blacklist, ET Telecom report.
  • [June 27] Medianama’s Huawei roundup: Promise of ‘no backdoor’ pact, 5G trial proposal and more.
  • [June 27] Huawei personnel worked with China’s military on research projects, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 28] How the Huawei issue affects India, The Economic Times report.
  • [June 28] Nokia’s CTO slams Huawei after ‘potential backdoors’ found in 55% of its devices, Forbes report.
  • [June 29] Nokia distances itself from CTO comments about Huawei, Tech Radar report.
  • [June 28] As Trump and Xi talk trade. Huawei will loom large, The New York Times report.
  • [June 29] Trump surprises G20 with Huawei concession: US companies can sell to Huawei, Forbes report; Live Mint report.
  • [June 30] Huawei lifeline shows Trump prefers business deals over cold war, Live Mint report.
  • [July 1] Google gets nod to license Android for Huawei, ET Telecom report.

Big Tech

  • [June 26] Google accused of working to prevent Trump return in 2020, ET Tech report.
  • [June 26] Next Google Chrome browser extension to increase data protection, Mediapost report; Forbes report, Medianama report.
  • [June 26] Google and University of Chicago sued over data sharing, The New York Times report.
  • [June 28] Italy stings Facebook with $1.1 million fine for Cambridge Analytica data misuse, TechCrunch report.
  • [June 29] Google may have leveraged Android unfairly, says CCI, Inc42 report.
  • [June 30] Spotify leaking use data with music labels: Report, ET Telecom report.

Emerging Tech/ AI

  • [June 22] White House updated national artificial intelligence strategy, Defense One report.
  • [June 24] Tech Mahindra unveils AI-based Humanoid HR for its Noida facility, Business Standard report.
  • [June 25] IT firms are buying niche firms to grow in emerging areas like IOT, ET Tech report.
  • [June 27] Commission-appointed panel publishes recommendations for artificial intelligence research. Science business report. [Read the full report of the High Level Expert Group appointed by the European Commission here].

Cryptocurrencies

  • [June 26] Facebook’s crypto currency faces pre-G20 examination, Livemint report.
  • [June 27] Crypto exchange Koinex wraps up operations; laments apathy of regulators and banks, Entrackr report, ETtech report, Medianama report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [June 25] Government surveillance at alarming levels: Forrester Global Map of Privacy Rights and Regulations, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [June 28] Madras HC allows Internet freedom Foundation (IFF) to intervene to oppose plea for linking Aadhaar with social media accounts, Live Law report; Medianama report.
  • [June 29] Have social media companies helped TN Police combat cyber crimes? Affidavit in Madras HC has answers, Bar&Bench report
  • [June 30] Railway police mulls using Aadhaar to track unidentified victims, The Hindu report; Times of India report.
  • [June 30] War on fake news: Government to roll out guidelines for Google, Facebook, WhatsApp, ISPs, Financial Express report

Tech and Military

  • [June 24] Indian MoD approves procurement of 10 more P-8I aircarft for Indian navy, Jane’s Defense weekly report.
  • [June 26] Russia wants to fool its enemies by making its drones look like owls (Uri style), Newsweek report.
  • [June 26] Tatas may soon join queue for drone clearance from DGCA, ET Tech report.
  • [June 26] 41 pieces of space debris from India’s asat test still in orbit, six weeks after they were supposed to decay according to Harvard astronomer, The Independent report
  • [June 27] Defence minister to review services’ emergency weapon acquisitions for war preparedness, India Today report.
  • [June 27] India progresses import substitution projects under Make-II category, Jane’s Defence Weekly report.
  • [June 28] S-400 Triumf missile deal: India mulls Euro payments for Russian arms to escape US sanctions, Business Today report.
  • [June 28] Euro payment won’t end possibility of US sanctions on S-400 deal: Ex-Indian Defence Adviser, Sputnik International report.
  • [June 30] India signs Rs. 200 crore anti-tank missile deal with Russia, Live Mint report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [June 23] Julian Vigo, Forbes, How cybersecurity is turning users into security experts.
  • [June 23] Nitin Pai, Live Mint, What it would take for India to become a proper space power,
  • [June 24] Satya Prakash, The Tribune, SC’s flip-flop on free speech.
  • [June 24] Tim Cushing, Tech Dirt (blog), Indian Government uses national security law, bad information to block twitter accounts all over the world.
  • [June 24] Michael Schmitt, Just Security (blog) Top Expert Backgrounder: Aborted US strike, cyber operations against Iran and International Law
  • [June 25] Rohan Choudhary, The Telegraph India, India’s strategic challenges in the near future will be naval, not continental
  • [June 25] Bryan Menegus, Gizmodo, This is how you’re being manipulated (by Big Tech)
  • [June 25] Prannv Dhawan and John Simte, Firstpost, Combating fake news: MEITY should allow legal-flexibility based on social media platforms over one-size-fits-all regulatory approach.
  • [June 25] Alon Muroch, Forbes, What’s preventing crypto from going mainstream?
  • [June 25] Geoffrey S Corn, Lawfare, The aborted Iran strike: the fine line between necessity and revenge,
  • [June 25]  Justin Sherman and Robert Morgus, Lawfare, The Confused US messaging campaign on Huawei.
  • [June 25] Live Mint Opinion, Accept Huawei’s offer.
  • [June 26] Sujan R Chinoy, IDSA Comment, Indo-US Defence Partnership: Future prospects.
  • [June 26] Lt Gen (Retd) DS Hooda, News18, India’s New Defence Cyber Agency Will have to Work Around Stovepipes Built by Army, Navy and Airforce
  • [June 26] Goutam Das and Sonal Khetrapal, Business Today,  Does the amended Aadhaar Bill circumvent Supreme Court’s order?
  • [June 26] Cameron F Kerry and Jon B Morris, The Brookings Institute, Why data ownership is the wrong approach to protecting privacy,
  • [June 27] Anirudh Rastogi and Ramani Ramachandran, ET Tech, RBI needs to overcome its fear of legitimate cryptocurrency usage
  • [June 27] Anrnab Dey, The Quint, What is India doing with all its big data?
  • [June 28] Samiksha Goel, Deccan Herald, 5G world will need new cybersecurity approach.
  • [June 28] Pravin Sawhney, The Wire, Nobody Should be surprised if this year’s defence budget hardly sees a boost.
  • [June 28] PK Vasudeva, The Statesman, A three-in-one position.
  • [June 28] Suhasini Haidar, The Hindu, At G20, India stands with developing world- not US, Japan- on 5G and data.
  • [June 29] Robert Farley, The Diplomat, Getting the world to comply with the US Huawei ban won’t be easy.
  • [June 28] Sidhant Kumar, The Economic Times (blog), Protection, or protectionist?
  • [June 29] Siddharth Sivaraman, The Sunday Guardian, Industrial development is a must for defence modernisation.
  • [June 30] Ephrat Livni, Quartz, Facebook’s Libra is spurring central banks’ interest in issuing crytpocurrency.
  • [June 30] Kamal Davar, The Sentinnel/ The Quint,  Security Agenda for Modi 2.0: A national security doctrine
  • [June 30] Arpita Mukherjee, The Pioneer, India should join e-commerce talks at WTO.
  • [June 30] Keshav Murugesh, The Hindu Business Line, Getting to the Digital Summit.
  • [June 30] Shobha Gupta, Bar & Bench, Section 66A: When a celebrated judgment of the Supreme Court cannot be implemented by the police.
  • [June 30] Nishant Sirohi, The Leaflet, AI Technologies: Putting human rights in the forefront.
  • [June 30] Eline Chivot, Financial Times, One year on, GDPR needs a reality check.
  • [June 29] Robert D Atkinson, Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, Trump was right to (Temporarily) Lift the Huawei Export Ban.
  • [June 30] Samir Saran and Richard Rahul Verma, The Print, Here’s how US and India can be major defence partners and take lead over Russia and China.

TechWars: 5G technology comes to India

In our last post we talked about the Huawei ban and the impact it has on India and our national security agenda. The Huawei proceedings are a culmination of a series of political oppositions between states which have a profound impact on many countries, including our own. While the Huawei incident has been described as a next generation cold war that stems from political and economic considerations, it is catalysed by the struggle for technological superiority.

5G or the Fifth-Generation mobile network is the successor to the current 4G technology pervasive in present-day information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. While the range of use remains the same, with 5G technology also being used to make and receive calls and texts, and to get online, the scope is drastically different. 5G technology is much faster than 4G, allowing for data streaming almost 100 times faster than current 4G rates.

In addition to finally having lag-free Netflix for your commute, this technology is also essential in powering many essential emerging tech such as driverless cars, machine-to-machine communication, etc. The 5G spectrum is wider in nature, which allows for more devices to connect to the super-fast internet, allowing for the IOT (Internet of Things) and other allied technologies such as AI and to finally take off. The lower latency results in a more stable connection.

Current propagation of 5G

While USA won the 4G race being the first country to offer LTE network, it appears that it is lagging behind on the 5G front. 4G technology offered the US many macroeconomic opportunities, however, 5G is expected to provide more. An examination of the spending patterns of countries on research and development of 5G technology shows that many countries have outspent US in their pursuit for 5G, with China spending nearly USD 24 billion more and opening 350,000 new sites for development, as compared to the US’s 30,000. China’s five-year economic plan further indicates a planned USD 400 billion 5G related investment, which gives China a substantial advantage in the 5G race.

Countries have started the 5G roll out in phases across the globe, with South Korea’s SK telecom claiming to have rolled out the first commercial use of 5G in April 2019. China has issued licenses to three of its operators, who could start rolling out public use as early as this year. Currently it’s being tested across the country in various location before a full-scale release. In addition, many countries have started the process to adopt 5G. Despite the ban, Huawei has received commercial contracts from over 30 countries for installing 5G technology.

British telco EE network became the first to offer 5G network in the UK, beating its rival Vodafone by just a few months. 5G network is also live in some cities in the US, however many companies, like Verizon only offer a home-broadband version of it, not a commercial one available to the public at large.

5G in India

In order to implement 5G in India, the first step would be to examine and identify the correct bands which would be auctioned to the telecom providers. The telecom ministry is currently working on identifying these bands, and is expected to finish the process in time for India to roll out 5G along with the rest of the world. The delay in the allocation process can also partly be attributed to the elevation of the 5G issue to the Prime Minister’s Office due to Huawei’s involvement in the 5G trials and the subsequent allegations of security threats levelled against them. While the PMO did not decide to rule out Huawei completely, it has decided to approach a ‘wait and watch’ approach to the situation and see how other countries react to these allegations.

The auction is expected to be the largest so far, and could happen as early as September- October this year. The principal challenge to spectrum allocations is TRAI’s recommendation on 5G spectrum prices. The Indian telecom providers have compared the 5G spectrum valuation in South Korea, to that of India which is almost 7 times higher and have considered these prices to be unsustainable.

The current status of the auction remains uncertain, while the prices are considered to be prohibitively high, it cannot be ignored that this technology would also result in significant gains of market share to companies who are able to implement them in a timely fashion. The expected revenue from 5G is estimated to be about USD 1 trillion dollars, which is instrumental in helping India achieve its goal of becoming a USD 5 trillion dollar economy. Due to the potential economic benefits, 5G has made its way into the limelight for the present government.

Despite opposition from leading telecom players such as Vodafone, who have advocated for delaying auction of 5G to post 2020, citing the adequacy of current 4G technology for present day tech and IOT needs, the potential of India’s 5G market has attracted many big players. Korean telco Samsung visited India to engage in talks with Indian telecom marketers, including Reliance Jio about the supply of 5G network equipment. This visit was in light of the uncertainty caused by the US’ ban on Huawei, the largest telecom provider in the world.

In conclusion, we can see that while telecom operators are somewhat weary of the spectrum allocation, 5G is making its way to your smartphones, with or without Huawei. With the advances in data consumption and internet usage in the country, the 5G spectrum would be a boon for the tech industry allowing better internet for research into AI, machine-to-machine communication, and IoT. But most importantly, it means that we can look forward to lag-free Netflix in our near future.