Experimenting With New Models of Data Governance – Data Trusts

This post has been authored by Shashank Mohan

India is in the midst of establishing a robust data governance framework, which will impact the rights and liabilities of all key stakeholders – the government, private entities, and citizens at large. As a parliamentary committee debates its first personal data protection legislation (‘PDPB 2019’), proposals for the regulation of non-personal data and a data empowerment and protection architecture are already underway. 

As data processing capabilities continue to evolve at a feverish pace, basic data protection regulations like the PDPB 2019 might not be sufficient to address new challenges. For example, big data analytics renders traditional notions of consent meaningless as users have no knowledge of how such algorithms behave and what determinations are made about them by such technology. 

Creative data governance models, which are aimed at reversing the power dynamics in the larger data economy are the need of the hour. Recognising these challenges policymakers are driving the conversation on data governance in the right direction. However, they might be missing out on crucial experiments being run in other parts of the world

As users of digital products and services increasingly lose control over data flows, various new models of data governance are being recommended for example, data trusts, data cooperatives, and data commons. Out of these, one of the most promising new models of data governance is – data trusts. 

(For the purposes of this blog post, I’ll be using the phrase data processors as an umbrella term to cover data fiduciaries/controllers and data processors in the legal sense. The word users is meant to include all data principals/subjects.)

What are data trusts?

Though there are various definitions of data trusts, one which is helpful in understanding the concept is – ‘data trusts are intermediaries that aggregate user interests and represent them more effectively vis-à-vis data processors.’ 

To solve the information asymmetries and power imbalances between users and data processors, data trusts will act as facilitators of data flow between the two parties, but on the terms of the users. Data trusts will act in fiduciary duty and in the best interests of its members. They will have the requisite legal and technical knowledge to act on behalf of users. Instead of users making potentially ill-informed decisions over data processing, data trusts will make such decisions on their behalf, based on pre-decided factors like a bar on third-party sharing, and in their best interests. For example, data trusts to users can be what mutual fund managers are to potential investors in capital markets. 

Currently, in a typical transaction in the data economy, if users wish to use a particular digital service, neither do they have the knowledge to understand the possible privacy risks nor the negotiation powers for change. Data trusts with a fiduciary responsibility towards users, specialised knowledge, and multiple members might be successful in tilting back the power dynamics in favour of users. Data trusts might be relevant from the perspective of both the protection and controlled sharing of personal as well as non-personal data. 

(MeitY’s Non-Personal Data Governance Framework introduces the concept of data trustees and data trusts in India’s larger data governance and regulatory framework. But, this applies only to the governance of ‘non-personal data’ and not personal data, as being recommended here. CCG’s comments on MeitY’s Non-Personal Data Governance Framework, can be accessed – here)

Challenges with data trusts

Though creative solutions like data trusts seem promising in theory, they must be thoroughly tested and experimented with before wide-scale implementation. Firstly, such a new form of trusts, where the subject matter of the trust is data, is not envisaged by Indian law (see section 8 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882, which provides for only property to be the subject matter of a trust). Current and even proposed regulatory structures don’t account for the regulation of institutions like data trusts (the non-personal data governance framework proposes data trusts, but only as data sharing institutions and not as data managers or data stewards, as being suggested here). Thus, data trusts will need to be codified into Indian law to be an operative model. 

Secondly, data processors might not embrace the notion of data trusts, as it may result in loss of market power. Larger tech companies, who have existing stores of data on numerous users may not be sufficiently incentivised to engage with models of data trusts. Structures will need to be built in a way that data processors are incentivised to participate in such novel data governance models. 

Thirdly, the business or operational models for data trusts will need to be aligned to their members i.e. users. Data trusts will require money to operate – for profit entities may not have the best interests of users in mind. Subscription based models, whether for profit or not, might fail as users are habitual to free services. Donation based models might need to be monitored closely for added transparency and accountability. 

Lastly, other issues like creation of technical specifications for data sharing and security, contours of consent, and whether data trusts will help in data sharing with the government, will need to be accounted for. 

Privacy centric data governance models

At this early stage of developing data governance frameworks suited to Indian needs, policymakers are at a crucial juncture of experimenting with different models. These models must be centred around the protection and preservation of privacy rights of Indians, both from private and public entities. Privacy must also be read in its expansive definition as provided by the Supreme Court in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs. Union of India. The autonomy, choice, and control over informational privacy are crucial to the Supreme Court’s interpretation of privacy. 

(CCG’s privacy law database that tracks privacy jurisprudence globally and currently contains information from India and Europe, can be accessed – here

The Proliferating Eyes of Argus: State Use of Facial Recognition Technology

Democratic lawmakers introduce ban on facial recognition technology, citing  mistake made by Detroit police | News Hits

This post has been authored by Sangh Rakshita

In Greek mythology Argus Panoptes was a many-eyed, all-seeing, and always awake, giant whose reference has been used to depict an imagery of excessive scrutiny and surveillance. Jeremy Bentham used this reference when he designed the panopticon prison where prisoners would be monitored without them being in the know. Later, Michel Foucault used the panopticon to elaborate on the social theory of panopticism where the watcher ceases to be external to the watched, resulting in internal surveillance or a ‘chilling’ effect. This idea of “panopticism” has gained renewed relevance in the age of digital surveillance.

Amongst the many cutting edge surveillance technologies being adopted globally, ‘Facial Recognition Technology’ (FRT) is one of the most rapidly deployed. ‘Live Facial Recognition Technology’ (LFRT) or ‘Real-time Facial Recognition Technology’, its augmentation, has increasingly become more effective in the past few years. Improvements in computational power and algorithms have enabled cameras placed at odd angles to detect faces even in motion. This post attempts to explore the issues with increasing State use of FRT around the world and the legal framework surrounding it.

What do FRT and LFRT mean?

FRT refers to the usage of algorithms for uniquely detecting, recognising, or verifying a person using recorded images, sketches, videos (which contain their face). The data about a particular face is generally known as the face template. This template is a mathematical representation of a person’s face, which is created by using algorithms that mark and map distinct features on the captured image like eye locations or the length of a nose. These face templates create the biometric database against which new images, sketches, videos, etc. are compared to verify or recognise the identity of a person. As opposed to the application of FRT, which is conducted on pre-recorded images and videos, LFRT involves real-time automated facial recognition of all individuals in the camera field’s vision. It involves biometric processing of images of all the passers-by using an existing database of images as a reference.

The accuracy of FRT algorithms is significantly impacted by factors like distance and angle from which the image was captured or poor lighting conditions. These problems are worsened in LFRT as the images are not captured in a controlled setting, with the subjects in motion, rarely looking at the camera, and often positioned at odd angles from it. 

Despite claims of its effectiveness, there has been growing scepticism about the use of FRT. Its use has been linked with misidentification of people of colour, ethinic minorities, women, and trans people. The prevalent use of FRT may not only affect the privacy rights of such communities, but all those who are surveilled at large.

The Prevalence of FRT 

While FRT has become ubiquitous, LFRT is still in the process of being adopted in countries like the UK, USA, India, and Singapore. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated the adoption of FRT as a way to track the virus’ spread and to build on contactless biometric-based identification systems. For example, in Moscow, city officials were using a system of tens of thousands of cameras equipped with FRT, to check for social distancing measures, usage of face masks, and adherence to quarantine rules to contain the spread of COVID-19. 

FRT is also being steadily deployed for mass surveillance activities, which is often in violation of universally accepted principles of human rights such as necessity and proportionality. These worries have come to the forefront recently with the State use of FRT to identify people participating in protests. For example, FRT was used by law enforcement agencies to identify prospective law breakers during protests in Hong Kong, protests concerning the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 in New Delhi and the Black Lives Matter protests across the USA.

Vociferous demands have been made by civil society and digital rights groups for a global moratorium on the pervasive use of FRT that enables mass surveillance, as many cities such as Boston and Portland have banned its deployment. However, it remains to be seen how effective these measures are in halting the use of FRT. Even the temporary refusal by Big Tech companies to sell FRT to police forces in the US does not seem to have much instrumental value – as other private companies continue its unhindered support.

Regulation of FRT

The approach to the regulation of FRT differs vastly across the globe. The regulation spectrum on FRT ranges from permissive use of mass surveillance on citizens in countries like China and Russia to a ban on the use of FRT for example in Belgium and Boston (in USA). However, in many countries around the world, including India, the use of FRT continues unabated, worryingly in a regulatory vacuum.

Recently, an appellate court in the UK declared the use of LFRT for law enforcement purposes as unlawful, on grounds of violation of the rights of data privacy and equality. Despite the presence of a legal framework in the UK for data protection and the use of surveillance cameras, the Court of Appeal held that there was no clear guidance on the use of the technology and it gave excessive discretion to the police officers. 

The EU has been contemplating a moratorium on the use of FRT in public places. Civil society in the EU is demanding a comprehensive and indefinite ban on the use of FRT and related technology for mass surveillance activities.

In the USA, several orders banning or heavily regulating the use of FRT have been passed. A federal law banning the use of facial recognition and biometric technology by law enforcement has been proposed. The bill seeks to place a moratorium on the use of facial recognition until Congress passes a law to lift the temporary ban. It would apply to federal agencies such as the FBI, as well as local and State police departments.

The Indian Scenario

In July 2019, the Government of India announced its intentions of setting up a nationwide facial recognition system. The National Crime Bureau (NCRB) – a government agency operating under the Ministry of Home Affairs – released a request for proposal (RFP) on July 4, 2019 to procure a National Automated Facial Recognition System (AFRS). The deadline for submission of tenders to the RFP has been extended 11 times since July 2019. The stated aim of the AFRS is to help modernise the police force, information gathering, criminal identification, verification, and its dissemination among various police organisations and units across the country. 

Security forces across the states and union territories will have access to the centralised database of AFRS, which will assist in the investigation of crimes. However, civil society organisations have raised concerns regarding privacy and issues of increased surveillance by the State as AFRS does not have a legal basis (statutory or executive) and lacks procedural safeguards and accountability measures like an oversight regulatory authority. They have also questioned the accuracy of FRT in identifying darker skinned women and ethnic minorities and expressed fears of discrimination. 

This is in addition to the FRT already in use by law enforcement agencies in Chennai, Hyderabad, Delhi, and Punjab. There are several instances of deployment of FRT in India by the government in the absence of a specific law regulating FRT or a general data protection law.

Even the proposed Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 is unlikely to assuage privacy challenges arising from the use of FRT by the Indian State. The primary reason for this is the broad exemptions provided to intelligence and law enforcement agencies under Clause 35 of the Bill on grounds of sovereignty and integrity, security of the State, public order, etc.

After the judgement of K.S. Puttaswamy vs. Union of India (Puttaswamy I), which reaffirmed the fundamental right to privacy in India, any act of State surveillance breaches the right to privacy and will need to adhere to the three part test laid down in Puttaswamy I.

The three prongs of the test are – legality, which postulates the existence of law along with procedural safeguards; necessity, defined in terms of a legitimate State aim; and proportionality which ensures a rational nexus between the objects and the means adopted to achieve them. This test was also applied in the Aadhaar case (Puttaswamy II) to the use of biometrics technology. 

It may be argued that State use of FRT is for the legitimate aim of ensuring national security, but currently its use is neither sanctioned by law, nor does it pass the test of proportionality. For proportionate use of FRT, the State will need to establish that there is a rational nexus between its use and the purpose sought to be achieved and that the use of such technology is the least privacy restrictive measure to achieve the intended goals. As the law stands today in India after Puttaswamy I and II, any use of FRT or LFRT currently is prima facie unconstitutional. 

While mass surveillance is legally impermissible in India, targeted surveillance is allowed under Section 5 of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, read with rule 419A of the Indian Telegraph Rules, 1951 and Section 69 of the Information and Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act). Even the constitutionality of Section 69 of the IT Act has been challenged and is currently pending before the Supreme Court.

Puttaswamy I has clarified that the protection of privacy is not completely lost or surrendered in a public place as it is attached to the person. Hence, the constitutionality of India’s surveillance apparatus needs to be assessed from the standards laid down by Puttaswamy I. To check unregulated mass surveillance through the deployment of FRT by the State, there is a need to restructure the overall surveillance regime in the country. Even the Justice Srikrishna Committee report in 2018 – highlighted that several executive sanctioned intelligence-gathering activities of law enforcement agencies would be illegal after Puttaswamy I as they do not operate under any law. 

The need for reform of surveillance laws, in addition to a data protection law in India to safeguard fundamental rights and civil liberties, cannot be stressed enough. The surveillance law reform will have to focus on the use of new technologies like FRT and regulate its deployment with substantive and procedural safeguards to prevent abuse of human rights and civil liberties and provide for relief. 

Well documented limitations of FRT and LFRT in terms of low accuracy rates, along with concerns of profiling and discrimination, make it essential for the surveillance law reform to have additional safeguards such as mandatory accuracy and non-discrimination audits. For example, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), US Department of Commerce, 2019 Face Recognition Vendor Test (part three) evaluates whether an algorithm performs differently across different demographics in a dataset. The need of the hour is to cease the use of FRT and put a temporary moratorium on any future deployments till surveillance law reforms with adequate proportionality safeguards have been implemented. 

Group Privacy and Data Trusts: A New Frontier for Data Governance?

The Centre’s Non Personal Data Report proposes a policy framework to regulate the use of anonymised data used by Big Tech companies. The question now is: how well do its recommendations meet up to the challenges of regulating non-personal data, amidst a regulatory lacuna for the same? Shashank Mohan of the Centre for Communication Governance explores how concepts of collective privacy and data trusts lie at the forefront of India’s future frameworks for digital governance.

By Shashank Mohan

This post first appeared on The Bastion on September 13, 2020

Image Credits: Swagam Dasgupta, The Bastion

In the past few years, it has become common knowledge that Big Tech companies like Facebook, Google, and Amazon rely on the exploitation of user data to offer seemingly free services. These companies typically use business models that rely on third party advertising to profit off this data. In exchange for their services, we hand over our data without much control or choice in the transaction. 

In response to the privacy threats posed by such business models, countries around the world have been strengthening and enacting data privacy laws. India is currently debating its own personal data protection law, which is loosely based on the benchmark EU data protection law–the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). More recently, attention has shifted to the regulation of non-personal data as well. The Indian Government recently released a report on the Non-Personal Data Governance Framework (NPD Report).

But, why do we need to regulate non-personal data?

While progress on the regulation of personal data is necessary and laudable, in the era of Big Data and machine learning, tech companies no longer need to solely rely on processing our personally identifiable data (personal data) to profile or track users. With newer developments in data analytics, they can find patterns and target us using seemingly innocuous data that may be aggregated or anonymised, but doesn’t need to be identifiable.

For example, they only need to know that I am a brown male in the age range of 25-35, from New Delhi, looking for shoes, and not necessarily my name or my phone number. All of this is “non-personal” data as it’s not linked to my personal identity.

Clearly, tech companies extract value from their service offerings using advanced data analytics and machine learning algorithms which rummage through both personal and non-personal data. This shift to harnessing non-identifiable/anonymised/aggregated data creates a lacuna in the governance of data, as traditionally, data protection laws like the GDPR have focused on identifiable data and giving an individual control over their personal data.

So, among other economic proposals, the NPD Report proposes a policy framework to regulate such anonymised data, to fill this lacuna. The question now is: how well do its recommendations meet up to the challenges of regulating non-personal data? 

How Does The Government Define Non-Personal Data?

The NPD Report proposes the regulation of non-personal data, which it defines as data that is never related to an identifiable person, such as data on weather conditions, or personal (identifiable) data which has been rendered anonymous by applying certain technological techniques (such as data anonymisation). The report also recommends the mandatory cross-sharing of this non-personal data between companies, communities of individuals, and the government. The purpose for which this data may be mandated to be shared falls under three broad buckets: national security, community benefit, and promoting market competition.

However, if such data is not related to an identifiable individual, then how can it be protected under personal data privacy laws?

To address these challenges in part, the report introduces two key concepts: collective privacy and data trusts. 

The NPD Report defines collective privacy as a right emanating from a community or group of people that are bound by common interests and purposes. It recommends that communities or a group of people exercise control over their non-personal data–which is distinct from an individual exercising control of their personal data–and do so via an appropriate nominee called a data trustee, who would exercise their privacy rights on behalf of the entire community. These two interconnected concepts of collective privacy and data trusteeship merit deeper exploration, due to their significant impact on how we view privacy rights in the digital age.

What is Collective Privacy and How Shall We Protect It?

The concept of collective privacy shifts the focus from an individual controlling their privacy rights, to a group or a community having data rights as a whole. In the age of Big Data analytics, the NPD Report does well to discuss the risks of collective privacy harms to groups of people or communities. It is essential to look beyond traditional notions of privacy centered around an individual, as Big Data analytical tools rarely focus on individuals, but on drawing insights at the group level, or on “the crowd” of technology users.

In a revealing example from 2013, data processors who accessed New York City’s taxi trip data (including trip dates and times) were able to infer with a degree of accuracy whether a taxi driver was a devout Muslim or not, even though data on the taxi licenses and medallion numbers had been anonymised. Data processors linked pauses in taxi trips with adherence to regularly timed prayer timings to arrive at their conclusion. Such findings and classifications may result in heightened surveillance or discrimination for such groups or communities as a whole.

An example of such a community in the report itself is of people suffering from a socially stigmatised disease who happen to reside in a particular locality in a city. It might be in the interest of such a community to keep details about their ailment and residence private, as even anonymised data pointing to their general whereabouts could lead to harassment and the violation of their privacy.

In such cases, harms arise not specifically to an individual, but to a group or community as a whole. Even if data is anonymised (and rendered completely un-identifiable), insights drawn at a group level help decipher patterns and enable profiling at the macro level.

However, the community suffering from the disease might also see some value in sharing limited, anonymised data on themselves with certain third parties; for example, with experts conducting medical research to find a cure to the disease. Such a group may nominate a data trustee–as envisioned by the NPD Report–who facilitates the exchange of non-personal data on their behalf, and takes their privacy interests into account with relevant data processors. 

This model of data trusteeship is thus clearly envisioned as a novel intermediary relationship–distinct from traditional notions of a legal trust or trustee for the management of property–between users and data trustees to facilitate the proper exchange of data, and protect users against privacy harms like large-scale profiling and behavioral manipulation.

But, what makes data trusts unique? 

Are Data Trusts the New ‘Mutual Funds’? 

Currently, data processors process a wide-range of data–both personal and non-personal–about users, without providing them accessible information about how they use or collect it. These users, if they wish to use services offered by data processors, do not have any negotiating powers over the collection or processing of their data. This results in information asymmetries and power imbalances between both parties, without much recourse to users–especially in terms of non-personal data which is not covered by personal data protection laws like the GDPR, or India’s Draft Personal Data Protection Bill.  

Data trusts can help solve the challenges arising during everyday data transactions taking place on the Internet. Acting as experts on behalf of users, they may be in a better position to negotiate for privacy-respecting practices as compared to individual users. By standardising data sharing practices like data anonymisation and demanding transparency in data usage, data trusts may also be better placed to protect collective privacy rights as compared to an unstructured community. One of the first recommendations to establish data trusts in the public fora came from the UK Government’s independent report from 2017, ‘Growing the artificial intelligence industry in the UK’, which recommended the establishment of data trusts for increased access to data for AI systems.

Simply put: data trusts might be akin to mutual fund managers, as they facilitate complex investments on behalf of and in the best interests of their individual investors. 

The Fault in Our Data Sarkaar

Since data trusts are still untested at a large scale, certain challenges need to be anticipated at the time of their conceptualisation, which the NPD Report does not take account of.

For example, in some cases, the report suggests that the role of the data trustee could be assumed by an arm of the government. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, for instance, could act as a trustee for all data on diabetes for Indian citizens. 

However, the government acting as a data trustee raises important questions of conflict of interest–after all, government agencies might utilise relevant non-personal data for the profiling of citizens. The NPD Report doesn’t provide solutions for such challenges.

Additionally, the NPD Report doesn’t clarify the ambiguity in the relationship between  data trusts and data trustees, adding to the complexity of its recommendations. While the report envisions data trusts as institutional structures purely for the sharing of given data sets, it defines data trustees as agents of ‘predetermined’ communities who are tasked with protecting their data rights. 

Broadly, this is just like how commodities (like stocks or gold) are traded over an exchange (such as data trusts) while agents such as stockbrokers (or data trustees) assist investors in making their investments. This is distinct from how Indian law treats traditional conceptions of trusts and trustees, and might require fresh law for its creation. 

In terms of the exchange of non-personal data, possibly both these tasks–that is, facilitating data sharing and protecting data rights of communities/groups–can be delegated to just one entity: data trusts. Individuals who do not form part of any ‘predetermined’ community–and thus may not find themselves represented by an appropriate trustee–may also benefit from such hybrid data trusts for the protection of their data rights.

Clearly, multiple cautionary steps need to be in place for data trusts to work, and for the privacy of millions to be protected–steps yet to be fully disclosed in the Report. 

Firstly, there is a need for legal and regulatory mechanisms that will ensure that these trusts genuinely represent the best interests of their members. Without a strong alignment with regulatory policies, data trusts might enable the further exploitation of data, rather than bringing about reforms in data governance. Borrowing from traditional laws on trusts, a genuine representation of interests can be ensured by placing a legal obligation–in the form of an enforceable trust deed– on the trust of a fiduciary duty (or duty of care) towards its members.

Secondly, data trusts will require money to operate, and developing funding models that ensure the independence of trusts and also serve their members’ best interests. Various models will need to be tested before implementation, including government funded data trusts and user-subscription based systems.

Thirdly, big questions about the transparency of data trusts remain. As these institutions may be the focal point of data exchange in India, ensuring their independence and accountability will be crucial. Auditing, continuous reviews, and reporting mechanisms will need to be enmeshed in future regulation to ensure the accountability of data trusts.

Privacy Rights Must Be Paramount

As the law tries to keep pace with technology in India, recognising new spheres which require immediate attention, like the challenges of collective privacy, becomes pertinent for policymakers. The NPD Report takes momentous strides in recognising some of these challenges which require swift redressal, but fails to take into consideration emerging scholarship on the autonomy, transparency, and strength of its proposed data trusts.

For example, large data processors will need to be incentivised to engage with data trusts. Smaller businesses may engage with data trusts easily considering the newfound easy access to large amounts of data. But, it might be difficult to incentivise Big Tech companies to engage with such structures, due to their existing stores of wide-scale data on millions of users. This is where the government will need to go back to the drawing board and engage with multiple stakeholders to ensure that innovation goes hand in hand with a privacy respecting data governance framework. Novel solutions like data trusts should be tested with pilot projects, before being baked into formal policy or law.

More than three years after India’s Supreme Court reaffirmed the right to privacy as intrinsic to human existence and a guarantee under the Indian Constitution, government policy continues to treat data–whether personal or non-personal–as a resource to be ‘mined’. In this atmosphere, to meaningfully recognise the right to privacy and self-determination, the government must lay down a data governance framework which seeks to protect the rights of users (or data providers), lays down principles of transparency and accountability, and establishes strong institutions for enforcement of the law.

(This post is in context of the report released by the Committee of Experts on Personal Data Governance Framework, as constituted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. CCG’s comments on the report can be accessed here)

Reflections on Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019

By Sangh Rakshita and Nidhi Singh

Image result for data protection"

 The Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 (PDP Bill/ Bill) was introduced in the Lok Sabha on December 11, 2019 , and was immediately referred to a joint committee of the Parliament. The joint committee published a press communique on February 4, 2020 inviting comments on the Bill from the public.

The Bill is the successor to the Draft Personal Data Protection Bill 2018 (Draft Bill 2018), recommended by a government appointed expert committee chaired by Justice B.N. Srikrishna. In August 2018, shortly after the recommendations and publication of the draft Bill, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) invited comments on the Draft Bill 2018 from the public. (Our comments are available here.)[1]

In this post we undertake a preliminary examination of:

  • The scope and applicability of the PDP Bill
  • The application of general data protection principles
  • The rights afforded to data subjects
  • The exemptions provided to the application of the law

In future posts in the series we will examine the Bill and look at the:

  • The restrictions on cross border transfer of personal data
  • The structure and functions of the regulatory authority
  • The enforcement mechanism and the penalties under the PDP Bill

Scope and Applicability

The Bill identifies four different categories of data. These are personal data, sensitive personal data, critical personal data and non-personal data

Personal data is defined as “data about or relating to a natural person who is directly or indirectly identifiable, having regard to any characteristic, trait, attribute or any other feature of the identity of such natural person, whether online or offline, or any combination of such features with any other information, and shall include any inference drawn from such data for the purpose of profiling. (emphasis added)

The addition of inferred data in the definition realm of personal data is an interesting reflection of the way the conversation around data protection has evolved in the past few months, and requires further analysis.

Sensitive personal data is defined as data that may reveal, be related to or constitute a number of different categories of personal data, including financial data, health data, official identifiers, sex life, sexual orientation, genetic data, transgender status, intersex status, caste or tribe, and religious and political affiliations / beliefs. In addition, under clause 15 of the Bill the Central Government can notify other categories of personal data as sensitive personal data in consultation with the Data Protection Authority and the relevant sectoral regulator.

Similar to the 2018 Bill, the current bill does not define critical personal data and clause 33 provides the Central Government the power to notify what is included under critical personal data. However, in its report accompanying the 2018 Bill, the Srikrishna committee had referred to some examples of critical personal data that relate to critical state interest like Aadhaar number, genetic data, biometric data, health data, etc.

The Bill retains the terminology introduced in the 2018 Draft Bill, referring to data controllers as ‘data fiduciaries’ and data subjects ‘data principals’. The new terminology was introduced with the purpose of reflecting the fiduciary nature of the relationship between the data controllers and subjects. However, whether the use of the specific terminology has more impact on the protection and enforcement of the rights of the data subjects still needs to be seen.

 Application of PDP Bill 2019

The Bill is applicable to (i) the processing of any personal data, which has been collected, disclosed, shared or otherwise processed in India; (ii) the processing of personal data by the Indian government, any Indian company, citizen, or person/ body of persons incorporated or created under Indian law; and (iii) the processing of personal data in relation to any individuals in India, by any persons outside of India.

The scope of the 2019 Bill, is largely similar in this context to that of the 2018 Draft Bill. However, one key difference is seen in relation to anonymised data. While the 2018 Draft Bill completely exempted anonymised data from its scope, the 2019 Bill does not apply to anonymised data, except under clause 91 which gives the government powers to mandate the use and processing of non-personal data or anonymised personal data under policies to promote the digital economy. There are a few concerns that arise in context of this change in treatment of anonymised personal data. First, there are concerns on the concept of anonymisation of personal data itself. While the Bill provides that the Data Protection Authority (DPA) will specify appropriate standards of irreversibility for the process of anonymisation, it is not clear that a truly irreversible form of anonymisation is possible at all. In this case, we need more clarity on what safeguards will be applicable for the use of anonymised personal data.

Second, is the Bill’s focus on the promotion of the digital economy. We have previously discussed some of the concerns regarding focus on the promotion of digital economy in a rights based legislation in our comments to the Draft Bill 2018.

These issues continue to be of concern, and are perhaps heightened with the introduction of a specific provision on the subject in the 2019 Bill (especially without adequate clarity on what services or policy making efforts in this direction, are to be informed by the use of anonymised personal data). Many of these issues are also still under discussion by the committee of experts set up to deliberate on data governance framework (non-personal data). The mandate of this committee includes the study of various issues relating to non-personal data, and to make specific suggestions for consideration of the central government on regulation of non-personal data.

The formation of the non-personal data committee was in pursuance of a recommendation by the Justice Srikrishna Committee to frame a legal framework for the protection of community data, where the community is identifiable. The mandate of the expert committee will overlap with the application of clause 91(2) of the Bill.

Data Fiduciaries, Social Media Intermediaries and Consent Managers

Data Fiduciaries

As discussed above the Bill categorises data controllers as data fiduciaries and significant data fiduciaries. Any person that determines the purpose and means of processing of personal data, (including the State, companies, juristic entities or individuals) is considered a data fiduciary. Some data fiduciaries may be notified as ‘significant data fiduciaries’, on the basis of factors such as the volume and sensitivity of personal data processed, the risks of harm etc. Significant data fiduciaries are held to higher standards of data protection. Under clauses 27-30, significant data fiduciaries are required to carry out data protection impact assessments, maintain accurate records, audit policy and the conduct of its processing of personal data and appoint a data protection officer. 

Social Media Intermediaries

The Bill introduces a distinct category of intermediaries called social media intermediaries. Under clause 26(4) a social media intermediary is ‘an intermediary who primarily or solely enables online interaction between two or more users and allows them to create, upload, share, disseminate, modify or access information using its services’. Intermediaries that primarily enable commercial or business-oriented transactions, provide access to the Internet, or provide storage services are not to be considered social media intermediaries.

Social media intermediaries may be notified to be significant data fiduciaries, if they have a minimum number of users, and their actions have or are likely to have a significant impact on electoral democracy, security of the State, public order or the sovereignty and integrity of India.

Under clause 28 social media intermediaries that have been notified as a significant data fiduciaries will be required to provide for voluntary verification of users to be accompanied with a demonstrable and visible mark of verification.

Consent Managers

The Bill also introduces the idea of a ‘consent manager’ i.e. a (third party) data fiduciary which provides for management of consent through an ‘accessible, transparent and interoperable platform’. The Bill does not contain any details on how consent management will be operationalised, and only states that these details will be specified by regulations under the Bill. 

Data Protection Principles and Obligations of Data Fiduciaries

Consent and grounds for processing

The Bill recognises consent as well as a number of other grounds for the processing of personal data.

Clause 11 provides that personal data shall only be processed if consent is provided by the data principal at the commencement of processing. This provision, similar to the consent provision in the 2018 Draft Bill, draws from various principles including those under the Indian Contract Act, 1872 to inform the concept of valid consent under the PDP Bill. The clause requires that the consent should be free, informed, specific, clear and capable of being withdrawn.

Moreover, explicit consent is required for the processing of sensitive personal data. The current Bill appears to be silent on issues such as incremental consent which were highlighted in our comments in the context of the Draft Bill 2018.

The Bill provides for additional grounds for processing of personal data, consisting of very broad (and much criticised) provisions for the State to collect personal data without obtaining consent. In addition, personal data may be processed without consent if required in the context of employment of an individual, as well as a number of other ‘reasonable purposes’. Some of the reasonable purposes, which were listed in the Draft Bill 2018 as well, have also been a cause for concern given that they appear to serve mostly commercial purposes, without regard for the potential impact on the privacy of the data principal.

In a notable change from the Draft Bill 2018, the PDP Bill, appears to be silent on whether these other grounds for processing will be applicable in relation to sensitive personal data (with the exception of processing in the context of employment which is explicitly barred).

Other principles

The Bill also incorporates a number of traditional data protection principles in the chapter outlining the obligations of data fiduciaries. Personal data can only be processed for a specific, clear and lawful purpose. Processing must be undertaken in a fair and reasonable manner and must ensure the privacy of the data principal – a clear mandatory requirement, as opposed to a ‘duty’ owed by the data fiduciary to the data principal in the Draft Bill 2018 (this change appears to be in line with recommendations made in multiple comments to the Draft Bill 2018 by various academics, including our own).

Purpose and collection limitation principles are mandated, along with a detailed description of the kind of notice to be provided to the data principal, either at the time of collection, or as soon as possible if the data is obtained from a third party. The data fiduciary is also required to ensure that data quality is maintained.

A few changes in the application of data protection principles, as compared to the Draft Bill 2018, can be seen in the data retention and accountability provisions.

On data retention, clause 9 of the Bill provides that personal data shall not be retained beyond the period ‘necessary’ for the purpose of data processing, and must be deleted after such processing, ostensibly a higher standard as compared to ‘reasonably necessary’ in the Draft Bill 2018. Personal data may only be retained for a longer period if explicit consent of the data principal is obtained, or if retention is required to comply with law. In the face of the many difficulties in ensuring meaningful consent in today’s digital world, this may not be a win for the data principal.

Clause 10 on accountability continues to provide that the data fiduciary will be responsible for compliance in relation to any processing undertaken by the data fiduciary or on its behalf. However, the data fiduciary is no longer required to demonstrate such compliance.

Rights of Data Principals

Chapter V of the PDP Bill 2019 outlines the Rights of Data Principals, including the rights to access, confirmation, correction, erasure, data portability and the right to be forgotten. 

Right to Access and Confirmation

The PDP Bill 2019 makes some amendments to the right to confirmation and access, included in clause 17 of the bill. The right has been expanded in scope by the inclusion of sub-clause (3). Clause 17(3) requires data fiduciaries to provide data principals information about the identities of any other data fiduciaries with whom their personal data has been shared, along with details about the kind of data that has been shared.

This allows the data principal to exert greater control over their personal data and its use.  The rights to confirmation and access are important rights that inform and enable a data principal to exercise other rights under the data protection law. As recognized in the Srikrishna Committee Report, these are ‘gateway rights’, which must be given a broad scope.

Right to Erasure

The right to correction (Clause 18) has been expanded to include the right to erasure. This allows data principals to request erasure of personal data which is not necessary for processing. While data fiduciaries may be allowed to refuse correction or erasure, they would be required to produce a justification in writing for doing so, and if there is a continued dispute, indicate alongside the personal data that such data is disputed.

The addition of a right to erasure, is an expansion of rights from the 2018 Bill. While the right to be forgotten only restricts or discontinues disclosure of personal data, the right to erasure goes a step ahead and empowers the data principal to demand complete removal of data from the system of the data fiduciary.

Many of the concerns expressed in the context of the Draft Bill 2018, in terms of the procedural conditions for the exercise of the rights of data principals, as well as the right to data portability specifically, continue to persist in the PDP Bill 2019.

Exceptions and Exemptions

While the PDP Bill ostensibly enables individuals to exercise their right to privacy against the State and the private sector, there are several exemptions available, which raise several concerns.

The Bill grants broad exceptions to the State. In some cases, it is in the context of specific obligations such as the requirement for individuals’ consent. In other cases, State action is almost entirely exempted from obligations under the law. Some of these exemptions from data protection obligations are available to the private sector as well, on grounds like journalistic purposes, research purposes and in the interests of innovation.

The most concerning of these provisions, are the exemptions granted to intelligence and law enforcement agencies under the Bill. The Draft Bill 2018, also provided exemptions to intelligence and law enforcement agencies, so far as the privacy invasive actions of these agencies were permitted under law, and met procedural standards, as well as legal standards of necessity and proportionality. We have previously discussed some of the concerns with this approach here.

The exemptions provided to these agencies under the PDP Bill, seem to exacerbate these issues.

Under the Bill, the Central Government can exempt an agency of the government from the application of this Act by passing an order with reasons recorded in writing if it is of the opinion that the exemption is necessary or expedient in the interest of sovereignty and integrity, security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states, public order; or for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognizable offence relating to the aforementioned grounds. Not only have the grounds on which government agencies can be exempted been worded in an expansive manner, the procedure of granting these exemptions also is bereft of any safeguards.

The executive functioning in India suffers from problems of opacity and unfettered discretion at times, which requires a robust system of checks and balances to avoid abuse. The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 (Telegraph Act) and the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) enable government surveillance of communications made over telephones and the internet. For drawing comparison here, we primarily refer to the Telegraph Act as it allows the government to intercept phone calls on similar grounds as mentioned in clause 35 of the Bill by an order in writing. However, the Telegraph Act limits the use of this power to two scenarios – occurrence of a public emergency or in the interest of public safety. The government cannot intercept communications made over telephones in the absence of these two preconditions. The Supreme Court in People’s Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India, (1997) introduced guidelines to check abuse of surveillance powers under the Telegraph Act which were later incorporated in Rule 419A of the Indian Telegraph Rules, 1951. A prominent safeguard included in Rule 419A requires that surveillance and monitoring orders be issued only after considering ‘other reasonable means’ for acquiring the required information. The court had further limited the scope of interpretation of ‘public emergency’ and ‘public safety’ to mean “the prevalence of a sudden condition or state of affairs affecting the people at large and calling for immediate action”, and “the state or condition of freedom from danger or risk at large” respectively. In spite of the introduction of these safeguards, the procedure of intercepting telephone communications under the Telegraph Act is criticised for lack of transparency and improper implementation. For instance, a 2014 report revealed that around 7500 – 9000 phone interception orders were issued by the Central Government every month. The application of procedural safeguards, in each case would have been physically impossible given the sheer numbers. Thus, legislative and judicial oversight becomes a necessity in such cases.

The constitutionality of India’s surveillance apparatus inclduing section 69 of the IT Act which allows for surveillance on broader grounds on the basis of necessity and expediency and not ‘public emergency’ and ‘public safety’, has been challenged before the Supreme Court and is currently pending. Clause 35 of the Bill also mentions necessity and expediency as prerequisites for the government to exercise its power to grant exemption, which appear to be vague and open-ended as they are not defined. The test of necessity, implies resorting to the least intrusive method of encroachment up on privacy to achieve the legitimate state aim. This test is typically one among several factors applied in deciding on whether a particular intrusion on a right is tenable or not, under human rights law. In his concurring opinion in Puttaswamy (I) J. Kaul had included ‘necessity’ in the proportionality test. (However, this test is not otherwise well developed in Indian jurisprudence).  Expediency, on the other hand, is not a specific legal basis used for determining the validity of an intrusion on human rights. It has also not been referred to in Puttaswamy (I) as a basis of assessing a privacy violation. The use of the term ‘expediency’ in the Bill is deeply worrying as it seems to bring down the threshold for allowing surveillance which is a regressive step in the context of cases like PUCL and Puttaswamy (I). A valid law along with the principles of proportionality and necessity are essential to put in place an effective system of checks and balances on the powers of the executive to provide exemptions. It seems unlikely that the clause will pass the test of proportionality (sanction of law, legitimate aim, proportionate to the need of interference, and procedural guarantees against abuse) as laid down by the Supreme Court in Puttaswamy (I).

The Srikrishna Committee report had recommended that surveillance should not only be conducted under law (and not executive order), but also be subject to oversight, and transparency requirements. The Committee had argued that the tests of lawfulness, necessity and proportionality provided for under clauses 42 and 43 (of the Draft Bill 2018) were sufficient to meet the standards set out under the Puttaswamy judgment. Since the PDP Bill completely does away with all these safeguards and leaves the decision to executive discretion, the law is unconstitutional.  After the Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha, J. Srikrishna had criticised it for granting expansive exemptions in the absence of judicial oversight. He warned that the consequences could be disastrous from the point of view of safeguarding the right to privacy and could turn the country into an “Orwellian State”. He has also opined on the need for a separate legislation to govern the terms under which the government can resort to surveillance.

Clause 36 of the Bill deals with exemption of some provisions for certain processing of personal data. It combines four different clauses on exemption which were listed in the Draft Bill 2018 (clauses 43, 44, 46 and 47). These include processing of personal data in the interests of prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of contraventions of law; for the purpose of legal proceedings; personal or domestic purposes; and journalistic purposes. The Draft Bill 2018 had detailed provisions on the need for a law passed by Parliament or the State Legislature which is necessary and proportionate, for processing of personal data in the interests of prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of contraventions of law. Clause 36 of the Bill does not enumerate the need for a law to process personal data under these exemptions. We had argued that these exemptions granted by the Draft Bill 2018 (clauses 43, 44, 46 and 47) were wide, vague and needed clarifications, but the exemptions under clause 36 of the Bill  are even more ambiguous as they merely enlist the exemptions without any specificities or procedural safeguards in place.

In the Draft Bill 2018, the Authority could not give exemption from the obligation of fair and reasonable processing, measures of security safeguards and data protection impact assessment for research, archiving or statistical purposes As per the current Bill, the Authority can provide exemption from any of the provisions of the Act for research, archiving or statistical purposes.

The last addition to this chapter of exemptions is that of creating a sandbox for encouraging innovation. This newly added clause 40 is aimed at encouraging innovation in artificial intelligence, machine-learning or any other emerging technology in public interest. The details of what the sandbox entails other than exemption from some of the obligations of Chapter II might need further clarity. Additionally, to be considered an eligible applicant, a data fiduciary has to necessarily obtain certification of its privacy by design policy from the DPA, as mentioned in clause 40(4) read with clause 22.

Though well appreciated for its intent, this provision requires clarification on grounds of selection and details of what the sandbox might entail.


[1] At the time of introduction of the PDP Bill 2019, the Minister for Law and Justice of India, Mr. Ravi Shankar Prasad suggested that over 2000 inputs were received on the Draft Bill 2018, based on which changes have been made in the PDP Bill 2019. However, these comments and inputs have not been published by MeitY, and only a handful of comments have been published, by the stakeholders submitting these comments themselves.   

[September 30-October 7] CCG’s Week in Review Curated News in Information Law and Policy

Huawei finds support from Indian telcos in the 5G rollout as PayPal withdrew from Facebook’s Libra cryptocurrency project; Foreign Portfolio Investors moved MeitY against in the Data Protection Bill; the CJEU rules against Facebook in case relating to takedown of content globally; and Karnataka joins list of states considering implementing NRC to remove illegal immigrants – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security.

Digital India

  • [Sep 30] Why the imminent global economic slowdown is a growth opportunity for Indian IT services firms, Tech Circle report.
  • [Sep 30] Norms tightened for IT items procurement for schools, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 1] Govt runs full throttle towards AI, but tech giants want to upskill bureaucrats first, Analytics India Magazine report.
  • [Oct 3] – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security. MeitY launches smart-board for effective monitoring of the key programmes, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] “Use human not artificial intelligence…” to keep a tab on illegal constructions: Court to Mumbai civic body, NDTV report.
  • [Oct 3] India took 3 big productivity leaps: Nilekani, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 4] MeitY to push for more sops to lure electronic makers, The Economic Times report; Inc42 report.
  • [Oct 4] Core philosophy of Digital India embedded in Gandhian values: Ravi Shankar Prasad, Financial Express report.
  • [Oct 4] How can India leverage its data footprint? Experts weigh in at the India Economic Summit, Quartz report.
  • [Oct 4] Indians think jobs would be easy to find despite automation: WEF, Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 4] Telangana govt adopts new framework to use drones for last-mile delivery, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 5] Want to see ‘Assembled in India’ on an iPhone: Ravi Shankar Prasad, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 6] Home market gets attractive for India’s IT giants, The Economic Times report.

Internet Governance

  • [Oct 2] India Govt requests maximum social media content takedowns in the world, Inc42 report; Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 3] Facebook can be forced to delete defamatory content worldwide, top EU court rules, Politico EU report.
  • [Oct 4] EU ruling may spell trouble for Facebook in India, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 4] TikTok, TikTok… the clock is ticking on the question whether ByteDance pays its content creators, ET Tech report.
  • [Oct 6] Why data localization triggers a heated debate, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 7] Sensitive Indian govt data must be stored locally, Outlook report.

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [Sep 30] FPIs move MeitY against data bill, seek exemption, ET markets report, Inc42 report; Financial Express report.
  • [Oct 1] United States: CCPA exception approved by California legislature, Mondaq.com report.
  • [Oct 1] Privacy is gone, what we need is regulation, says Infosys Kris Gopalakrishnana, News18 report.
  • [Oct 1] Europe’s top court says active consent is needed for tracking cookies, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Oct 3] Turkey fines Facebook $282,000 over data privacy breach, Deccan Herald report.

Free Speech

  • [Oct 1] Singapore’s ‘fake news’ law to come into force Wednesday, but rights group worry it could stifle free speech, The Japan Times report.
  • [Oct 2] Minister says Singapore’s fake news law is about ‘enabling’ free speech, CNBC report.
  • [Oct 3] Hong Kong protests: Authorities to announce face mask ban, BBC News report.
  • [Oct 3] ECHR: Holocaust denial is not protected free speech, ASIL brief.
  • [Oct 4] FIR against Mani Ratnam, Adoor and 47 others who wrote to Modi on communal violence, The News Minute report; Times Now report.
  • [Oct 5] UN asks Malaysia to repeal laws curbing freedom of speech, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Oct 6] When will our varsities get freedom of expression: PC, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Oct 6] UK Government to make university students sign contracts limiting speech and behavior, The Times report.
  • [Oct 7] FIR on Adoor and others condemned, The Telegraph report.

Aadhaar, Digital IDs

  • [Sep 30] Plea in SC seeking linking of social media accounts with Aadhaar to check fake news, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] Why another omnibus national ID card?, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [Oct 2] ‘Kenyan court process better than SC’s approach to Aadhaar challenge’: V Anand, who testified against biometric project, LiveLaw report.
  • [Oct 3] Why Aadhaar is a stumbling block in Modi govt’s flagship maternity scheme, The Print report.
  • [Oct 4] Parliament panel to review Aadhaar authority functioning, data security, NDTV report.
  • [Oct 5] Could Aahdaar linking stop GST frauds?, Financial Express report.
  • [Oct 6] Call for liquor sale-Aadhaar linking, The New Indian Express report.

Digital Payments, Fintech

  • [Oct 7] Vision cash-lite: A billion UPI transactions is not enough, Financial Express report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Oct 1] US SEC fines crypto company Block.one for unregistered ICO, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 1] South Korean Court issues landmark decision on crypto exchange hacking, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 2] The world’s most used cryptocurrency isn’t bitcoin, ET Markets report.
  • [Oct 2] Offline transactions: the final frontier for global crypto adoption, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Oct 3] Betting on bitcoin prices may soon be deemed illegal gambling, The Economist report.
  • [Oct 3] Japan’s financial regulator issues draft guidelines for funds investing in crypto, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 3] Hackers launch widespread botnet attack on crypto wallets using cheap Russian malware, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 4] State-backed crypto exchange in Venezuela launches new crypto debit cards, Decrypt report.
  • [Oct 4] PayPal withdraws from Facebook-led Libra crypto project, Coin Desk report.
  • [Oct 5] Russia regulates digital rights, advances other crypto-related bills, Bitcoin.com report.
  • [Oct 5] Hong Kong regulates crypto funds, Decrypt report.

Cybersecurity and Cybercrime

  • [Sep 30] Legit-looking iPhone lightening cables that hack you will be mass produced and sold, Vice report.
  • [Sep 30] Blackberry launches new cybersecurity development labs, Infosecurity Mgazine report.
  • [Oct 1] Cybersecurity experts warn that these 7 emerging technologies will make it easier for hackers to do their jobs, Business Insider report.
  • [Oct 1] US government confirms new aircraft cybersecurity move amid terrorism fears, Forbes report.
  • [Oct 2] ASEAN unites to fight back on cyber crime, GovInsider report; Asia One report.
  • [Oct 2] Adopting AI: the new cybersecurity playbook, TechRadar Pro report.
  • [Oct 4] US-UK Data Access Agreement, signed on Oct 3, is an executive agreement under the CLOUD Act, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 4] The lack of cybersecurity talent is ‘a  national security threat,’ says DHS official, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Oct 4] Millions of Android phones are vulnerable to Israeli surveillance dealer attack, Forbes report; NDTV report.
  • [Oct 4] IoT devices, cloud solutions soft target for cybercriminals: Symantec, Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 6] 7 cybersecurity threats that can sneak up on you, Wired report.
  • [Oct 6] No one could prevent another ‘WannaCry-style’ attack, says DHS official, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Oct 7] Indian firms rely more on automation for cybersecurity: Report, ET Tech report.

Cyberwarfare

  • [Oct 2] New ASEAN committee to implement norms for countries behaviour in cyberspace, CNA report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 30] IAF ready for Balakot-type strike, says new chief Bhadauria, The Hindu report; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 30] Naval variant of LCA Tejas achieves another milestone during its test flight, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 30] SAAB wants to offer Gripen at half of Rafale cost, full tech transfer, The Print report.
  • [Sep 30] Rajnath harps on ‘second strike capability’, The Shillong Times report.
  • [Oct 1] EAM Jaishankar defends India’s S-400 missile system purchase from Russia as US sanctions threat, International Business Times report.
  • [Oct 1] SC for balance between liberty, national security, Hindustan Times report.
  • [Oct 2] Startups have it easy for defence deals up to Rs. 150 cr, ET Rise report, Swarajya Magazine report.
  • [Oct 3] Huawei-wary US puts more pressure on India, offers alternatives to data localization, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 4] India-Russia missile deal: What is CAATSA law and its implications?, Jagran Josh report.
  • [Oct 4] Army inducts Israeli ‘tank killers’ till DRDO develops new ones, Defence Aviation post report.
  • [Oct 4] China, Russia deepen technological ties, Defense One report.
  • [Oct 4] Will not be afraid of taking decisions for fear of attracting corruption complaints: Rajnath Singh, New Indian Express report.
  • [Oct 4] At conclave with naval chiefs of 10 countries, NSA Ajit Doval floats an idea, Hindustan Times report.
  • [Oct 6] Pathankot airbase to finally get enhanced security, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 6] rafale with Meteor and Scalp missiles will give India unrivalled combat capability: MBDA, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 7] India, Bangladesh sign MoU for setting up a coastal surveillance radar in Bangladesh, The Economic Times report; Decaan Herald report.
  • [Oct 7] Indian operated T-90 tanks to become Russian army’s main battle tank, EurAsian Times report.
  • [Oct 7] IAF’s Sukhois to get more advanced avionics, radar, Defence Aviation post report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [Sep 30] TMC MP Mahua Mitra wants to be impleaded in the WhatsApp traceability case, Medianama report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] Role of GIS and emerging technologies in crime detection and prevention, Geospatial World.net report.
  • [Oct 2] TRAI to take more time on OTT norms; lawful interception, security issue now in focus, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 2[ China invents super surveillance camera that can spot someone from a crowd of thousands, The Independent report.
  • [Oct 4] ‘Don’t introduce end-to-end encryption,’ UK, US and Australia ask Facebook in an open letter, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 4] Battling new-age cyber threats: Kerala Police leads the way, The Week report.
  • [Oct 7] India govt bid to WhatsApp decryption gets push as UK,US, Australia rally support, Entrackr report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Oct 1] WhatsApp was extensively exploited during 2019 elections in India: Report, Firstpost report.
  • [Oct 3] A national security problem without a parallel in American democracy, Defense One report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 30] BDC polls across Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh on Oct 24, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 30] India ‘invaded and occupied Kashmir, says Malaysian PM at UN General Assembly, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 30] J&K police stations to have CCTV camera surveillance, News18 report.
  • [Oct 1] 5 judge Supreme court bench to hear multiple pleas on Article 370, Kashmir lockdown today, India Today report.
  • [Oct 1] India’s stand clear on Kashmir: won’t accept third-party mediation, India Today report.
  • [Oct 1] J&K directs officials to ensure all schools reopen by Thursday, NDTV report.
  • [Oct 2]] ‘Depressed, frightened’: Minors held in Kashmir crackdown, Al Jazeera report.
  • [Oct 3] J&K: When the counting of the dead came to a halt, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 3] High schools open in Kashmir, students missing, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] Jaishanakar reiterates India’s claim over Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 3] Normalcy prevails in Jammu and Kashmir, DD News report.
  • [Oct 3] Kashmiri leaders will be released one by one, India Today report.
  • [Oct 4] India slams Turkey, Malaysia remarks on J&K, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 5] India’s clampdown hits Kashmir’s Silicon Valley, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 5] Traffic cop among 14 injured in grenade attack in South Kashmir, NDTV report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 6] Kashmir situation normal, people happy with Article 370 abrogation: Prkash Javadekar, Times of India report.
  • [Oct 7] Kashmir residents say police forcibly taking over their homes for CRPF troops, Huffpost India report.

Internal Security: Northeast/ NRC

  • [Sep 30] Giving total control of Assam Rifles to MHA will adversely impact vigil: Army to Govt, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 30] NRC list impact: Assam’s foreigner tribunals to have 1,600 on contract, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 30] Assam NRC: Case against Wipro for rule violation, The Hindu report; News18 report; Scroll.in report.
  • [Sep 30] Hindu outfits demand NRC in Karnataka, Deccan Chronicle report; The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Oct 1] Centre extends AFPSA in three districts of Arunachal Pradesh for six months, ANI News report.
  • [Oct 1] Assam’s NRC: law schools launch legal aid clinic for excluded people, The Hindu report; Times of India report; The Wire report.
  • [Oct 1] Amit Shah in Kolkata: NRC to be implemented in West Bengal, infiltrators will be evicted, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] US Congress panel to focus on Kashmir, Assam, NRC in hearing on human rights in South Asia, News18 report.
  • [Oct 1] NRC must for national security; will be implemented: Amit Shah, The Hindu Business Line report.
  • [Oct 2] Bengali Hindu women not on NRC pin their hope on promise of another list, citizenship bill, The Print report.
  • [Oct 3] Citizenship Amendment Bill has become necessity for those left out of NRC: Assam BJP president Ranjeet Das, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] BJP govt in Karnataka mulling NRC to identify illegal migrants, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 3] Explained: Why Amit Shah wants to amend the Citizenship Act before undertaking countrywide NRC, The Indian Express report.
  • [Oct 4] Duplicating NPR, NRC to sharpen polarization: CPM, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Oct 5] We were told NRC India’s internal issue: Bangladesh, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 6] Prasanna calls NRC ‘unjust law’, The New Indian Express report.

National Security Institutions

  • [Sep 30] CRPF ‘denied’ ration cash: Govt must stop ‘second-class’ treatment. The Quint report.
  • [Oct 1] Army calls out ‘prejudiced’ foreign report on ‘torture’, refutes claim, Republic World report.
  • [Oct 2] India has no extraterritorial ambition, will fulfill regional and global security obligations: Bipin Rawat, The Economic Times report.

More on Huawei, 5G

  • [Sep 30] Norway open to Huawei supplying 5G equipment, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 30] Airtel deploys 100 hops of Huawei’s 5G technology, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 1] America’s answer to Huawei, Foreign Policy report; Tech Circle report.
  • [Oct 1] Huawei buys access to UK innovation with Oxford stake, Financial Times report.
  • [Oct 3] India to take bilateral approach on issues faced by other countries with China: Jaishankar, The Hindu report.
  • [Oct 4] Bharti Chairman Sunil Mittal says India should allow Huawei in 5G, The Economic Times report
  • [Oct 6] 5G rollout: Huawei finds support from telecom industry, Financial Express report.

Emerging Tech: AI, Facial Recognition

  • [Sep 30] Bengaluru set to roll out AI-based traffic solution at all signals, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 1] AI is being used to diagnose disease and design new drugs, Forbes report.
  • [Oct 1] Only 10 jobs created for every 100 jobs taken away by AI, The Economic Times report.
  • [Oct 2]Emerging tech is helping companies grow revenues 2x: report, ET Tech report.
  • [Oct 2] Google using dubious tactics to target people with ‘darker skin’ in facial recognition project: sources, Daily News report.
  • [Oct 2] Three problems posed by deepfakes that technology won’t solve, MIT Technology Review report.
  • [Oct 3] Getting a new mobile number in China will involve a facial recognition test, Quartz report.
  • [Oct 4] Google contractors targeting homeless people, college students to collect their facial recognition data: Report, Medianama report.
  • [Oct 4] More jobs will be created than are lost from the IA revolution: WEF AI Head, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 6] IIT-Guwahati develops AI-based tool for electric vehicle motor, Livemint report.
  • [Oct 7] Even if China misuses AI tech, Satya Nadella thinks blocking China’s AI research is a bad idea, India Times report.

Big Tech

  • [Oct 3] Dial P for privacy: Google has three new features for users, Times of India report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 26] Richard Stengel, Time, We’re in the middle of a global disinformation war. Here’s what we need to do to win.
  • [Sep 29] Ilker Koksal, Forbes, The shift toward decentralized finance: Why are financial firms turning to crypto?
  • [Sep 30] Nistula Hebbar, The Hindu, Govt. views grassroots development in Kashmir as biggest hope for peace.
  • [Sep 30] Simone McCarthy, South China Morning Post, Could China’s strict cyber controls gain international acceptance?
  • [Sep 30] Nele Achten, Lawfare blog, New UN Debate on cybersecurity in the context of international security.
  • [Sep 30[ Dexter Fergie, Defense One, How ‘national security’ took over America.
  • [Sep 30] Bonnie Girard, The Diplomat, A firsrhand account of Huawei’s PR drive.
  • [Oct 1] The Economic Times, Rafale: Past tense but furture perfect.
  • [Oct 1] Simon Chandler, Forbes, AI has become a tool for classifying and ranking people.
  • [Oct 2] Ajay Batra, Business World, Rethink India! – MMRCA, ESDM & Data Privacy Policy.
  • [Oct 2] Carisa Nietsche, National Interest, Why Europe won’t combat Huawei’s Trojan tech.
  • [Oct 3] Aruna Sharma, Financial Express, The digital way: growth with welfare.
  • [Oct 3] Alok Prasanna Kumar, Medianama, When it comes to Netflix, the Government of India has no chill.
  • [Oct 3] Fredrik Bussler, Forbes, Why we need crypto for good.
  • [Oct 3] Panos Mourdoukoutas, Forbes, India changed the game in Kashmir – Now what?
  • [Oct 3] Grant Wyeth, The Diplomat, The NRC and India’s unfinished partition.
  • [Oct 3] Zak Doffman, Forbes, Is Huawei’s worst Google nightmare coming true?
  • [Oct 4] Oren Yunger, Tech Crunch, Cybersecurity is a bubble, but it’s not ready to burst.
  • [Oct 4] Minakshi Buragohain, Indian Express, NRS: Supporters and opposers must engage each other with empathy.
  • [Oct 4] Frank Ready, Law.com, 27 countries agreed on ‘acceptable’ cyberspace behavior. Now comes the hard part.
  • [Oct 4] Samir Saran, World economic Forum (blog), 3 reasons why data is not the new oil and why this matters to India.
  • [Oct 4] Andrew Marantz, The New York Times, Free Speech is killing us.
  • [Oct 4] Financial Times editorial, ECJ ruling risks for freedom of speech online.
  • [Oct 4] George Kamis, GCN, Digital transformation requires a modern approach to cybersecurity.
  • [Oct 4] Naomi Xu Elegant and Grady McGregor, Fortune, Hong King’s mask ban pits anonymity against the surveillance state.
  • [Oct 4] Prashanth Parameswaran, The Diplomat, What’s behind the new US-ASEAN cyber dialogue?
  • [Oct 5] Huong Le Thu, The Strategist, Cybersecurity and geopolitics: why Southeast Asia is wary of a Huawei ban.
  • [Oct 5] Hannah Devlin, The Guardian, We are hurtling towards a surveillance state: the rise of facial recognition technology.
  • [Oct 5] PV Navaneethakrishnan, The Hindu Why no takers? (for ME/M.Tech programmes).
  • [Oct 6] Aakar Patel, Times of India blog, Cases against PC, letter-writing celebs show liberties are at risk.
  • [Oct 6] Suhasini Haidar, The Hindu, Explained: How ill purchases from Russia affect India-US ties?
  • [Oct 6] Sumit Chakraberty, Livemint, Evolution of business models in the era of privacy by design.
  • [Oct 6] Spy’s Eye, Outlook, Insider threat management.
  • [Oct 6] Roger Marshall, Deccan Herald, Big oil, Big Data and the shape of water.
  • [Oct 6] Neil Chatterjee, Fortune, The power grid is evolving. Cybersecurity  must too.
  • [Oct 7] Scott W Pink, Modaq.com, EU: What is GDPR and CCPA and how does it impact blockchain?
  • [Oct 7] GN Devy, The Telegraph, Has India slid into an irreversible Talibanization of the mind?
  • [Oct 7] Susan Ariel Aaronson, South China Morning Post, The Trump administration’s approach to AI is not that smart: it’s about cooperation, not domination.

[September 23-30] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

The deadline to link PAN cards with Aadhaar was extended to December 31 this week; the Election Commission ruled that voting rights of those excluded in the NRC process remain unaffected; the Home Minister proposed a digital census with multipurpose ID cards for 2021; and 27 nations including the US, UK and Canada issued joint statement urging for a rules-based order in cyberspace – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, technology and national security.

Aadhaar and Digital IDs

  • [Sep 23] Home Minister announces digital census in 2021, proposed multipurpose ID card, Entrackr report; Business Today report.
  • [Sep 24] NRIs can now apply for Aadhaar on arrival without 182-day wait, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 24] Aadhaar will be linked to driving license to avoid forgery: Ravi Shankar Prasad, The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 24] One nation, one card? Amit Shah floats idea of all-in-one ID; here are all the problems with that idea, Medianama report; Money Control report.
  • [Sep 24] Explained: Is India likely to have a multipurpose national ID card? The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 24] UIDAI nod to ‘voluntary’ use of Aadhaar for National Population Register rollout, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 24] Govt must decide on Aadhaar-social media linkage:SC, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 25] New law needed for Aadhaar-social media linkage: UIDAI, The Economic Times report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 26] NPR process to include passport, voter ID, Aadhaar and other details, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 27] Gang involved in making fake Aadhaar cards busted, The Tribune report.
  • [Sep 27] What will happen if you don’t link your PAN card with Aadhaar by Sep 20, The Quint report.
  • [Sep 27] Explained: The National Population Register, and the controversy around it, The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 27] Aadhaar to weed out bogus social security beneficiaries in Karnataka, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 29] Bajrang Dal wants Aadhaar mandatory at dandiya to keep ‘non-Hindus’ out, The Hindustan Times report; The Wire report.
  • [Sep 30] Kerala urges Centre to extend deadline to link ration cards with Aadhaar, The News Minute report.
  • [Sep 30] PAN-Aadhaar linking deadline extended to December 31, The Economic Times report.

Digital India 

  • [Sep 25] India’s regulatory approach should focus on the regulation of the ‘core’: IAMAI, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 27] India may have to offer sops to boost electronic manufacturing, ET Tech report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 27] Digital India, start-ups are priorities for $5 trillion economy: PM Modi, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 29] Tech giants aim to skill Indian govt officials in AI, cloud, ET CIO report.
  • [Sep 29] India’s share in IT, R&D biz up in 2 years: report, The Economic Times report.

Internet Governance

  • [Sep 24] Supreme Court to MeitY: What’s the status of intermediary guidelines? Tell us by Oct 15, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 26] Will not be ‘excessive’ with social media rules, ay Govt officials, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 26] Government trying to balance privacy and security in draft IT intermediary norms, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Citizens, tech companies served better with some regulation: Facebook India MD Ajit Mohan, ET Tech report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 27] Balance benefits of internet, data security: Google CEO Sundar Pichai, ET Tech report; Business Today report.

Free Speech

  • [Sep 25] Jadavpur University calls upon ‘stakeholders’ to ensure free speech on campus, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 28] RSS raises objections to uncensored content of Maoj Bajpayee’s “The Family Man”, The Hindu report; Outlook report.

Privacy and Data Protection

  • [Sep 23] A landmark decision on Tuesday could radically reshape how Google’s search results work, Business Insider report.
  • [Sep 23] Google tightens its voice assistant rules amidst privacy backlash, Wired report.
  • [Sep 24] Dell rolls out new data protection storage appliances and capabilities, ZDNet report.
  • [Sep 24] ‘Right to be forgotten’ privacy rule is limited by Europe’s top court, The New York Times report; Live Law report.
  • [Sep 27] Nigeria launches investigation into Truecaller for potential breach of privacy, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 29] Right to be forgotten will be arduous as India frames data protection law, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 30] FPIs move against data bill, seek exemption, ET Telecom report; Entrackr report.

Data Localisation

  • [Sep 26] Reconsider imposition of data localisation: IAMAI report, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Why data is not oil: Here’s how India’s data localisation norms will hurt the economy, Inc42 report.

Digital Payments and Fintech

  • [Sep 23] RBI rider on credit bureau data access has Fintech in a quandary, ET Tech report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Sep 23] Facebook reveals Libra currency basket breakdown, Coin Desk report.
  • [Sep 23] The face of India’s crypto lobby readies for a clash, Ozy report.
  • [Sep 23] Why has Brazil’s Central Bank included crypto assets in trade balance? Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 24] French retailers widening crypto acceptance, Tech Xplore report.
  • [Sep 26] Why crypto hoaxes are so successful, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 26] South Africa: the net frontier for crypto exchanges, Coin Telegraph report
  • [Sep 27] The crypto wars’ strange bedfellows, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 28] Crypto industry is already preparing for Google’s ‘quantum supremacy’, Decrypt report.
  • [Sep 29] How crypto gambling is regulated around the world, Coin Telegraph report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [Sep 29] New WhatsApp and Facebook Encryption ‘Backdoors’ – What’s really going on, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 28] Facebook, WhatsApp will have to share messages with UK Government, Bloomberg report.
  • [Sep 23] Secret FBI subpoenas scoop up personal data from scores of companies, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 23] ‘Don’t transfer the WhatsApp traceability case’, Internet Freedom Foundation asks Supreme Court, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 24] China offers free subway rides to citizens who register their face with surveillance system, The Independent report.
  • [Sep 24] Facial recognition technology in public housing prompts backlash, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 24] Facebook-Aadhaar linkage and WhatsApp traceability: Supreme Court says government must frame rules, CNBC TV18 report.
  • [ep 27] Fashion that counters surveillance cameras, Business Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Unnao rape case: Delhi court directs Apple to give Sengar’s location details on day of alleged rape, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 27] Face masks to decoy t-shirts: the rise of anti-surveillance fashion, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 30] Battle for privacy and encryption: WhatsApp and government head for a showdown on access to messages, ET Prime report.
  • [Sep 29] Improving digital evidence sharing, Scottish Government news report; Public technology report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 23] Government launches internet facilitation centre in Pulwama for students, Times of India report; Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 23] Army chief rejects ‘clampdown’ in Jammu and Kashmir, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 24] Rising power: Why India has faced muted criticism over its Kashmir policy, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 24] ‘Restore Article 370, 35A in Jammu and Kashmir, withdraw army, paramilitary forces’: 5-member women’s group will submit demands to Amit Shah, Firstpost report.
  • [Sep 24] No normalcy in Kashmir, says fact finding team, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 25] End clampdown: Kashmir media, The Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 25] Resolve Kashmir issue through dialogue and not through collision: Erdogan, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 25] Rajya Sabha deputy chair thwarts Pakistan’s attempt at Kashmir at Eurasian Conference, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 25] Pakistan leader will urge UN intervention in Kashmir, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 25] NSA Ajit Doval back in Srinagar to review security situation, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Communication curbs add fresh challenge to Kashmir counter-insurgency operations, News18 report.
  • [Sep 27] Fresh restrictions in parts of Kashmir, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 27] US wants ‘rapid’ easing of Kashmir restrictions, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 27] Kashmir issue: Rescind action on Art. 370, OIC tells India, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 28] India objects to China’s reference to J&K and Ladakh at UNGA, The Economic Times report; The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 29] Surveillance, area domination operations intensified in Kashmir, The Economic Times report; Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 29] Police impose restrictions in J&K after Imran Khan’s speech at UNGA, India Today report.

Internal Security: NRC and the North-East

  • [Sep 23] Assam framing cyber security policy to secure data related to NRC, police, services, The Economic Times report; Money Control report.
  • [Sep 24] BJP will tell SC that we reject this NRC, says Himanta Biswa Sarma, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 24] Amit Shah to speak on NRC, Citizenship Amendment Bill in Kolkata on Oct 1, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 26] ‘Expensive’ legal battle for those rejected in Assam NRC final list, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 27] Scared of NRC? Come back in 2022, The Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 27] Voters left out of NRC will have right to vote, rules Election Commission, India Today report; The Wire report.
  • [Sep 27] NRC: Assam government announces 200 Foreigners Tribunals in 33 districts, Times Now report; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 28] Judge urges new FT members to examine NRC claims with utmost care, Times of India report.

National Security Legislation

  • [Sep 23] Centre will reintroduce Citizenship Bill in Parliament: Himanta Biswa Sarma, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 26] National Security Guard: History, Functions and Operations, Jagran Josh report.
  • [Sep 28] Left parties seek revocation of decision on Article 370, The Tribune India report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 25] Army to start using Artificial Intelligence in 2-3 years: South Western Army commander, The Print report; India Today report; The New Indian Express report; Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 23] Modi, Trump set new course on terrorism, border security, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 23] PM Modi in the US” Trump promises more defence deals with India, military trade to go up, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 23] Punjab police bust terror module supplied with weapons by drones from Pak, NDTV report.
  • [Sep 26] Lockheed Martin to begin supplying F-16 wings from Hyderabad plant in 2020, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 26] Drones used for cross-border arms infiltration in Punjab a national security issues, says Randhawa, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 27] UK MoD sets up cyber team for secure innovation, UK Authority report.
  • [Sep 29] New tri-services special ops division, meant for surgical strikes, finishes first exercise today, The Print report.
  • [Sep 30] After Saudi attacks, India developing anti-drone technology to counter drone menace, Eurasian Times report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Sep 20] Microsoft will offer free Windows 7 support for US election officials through 2020, Cyber Scoop report.
  • [Sep 26] Social media platforms to follow ‘code of ethics’ in all future elections: EC, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 28] Why is EC not making ‘authentic’ 2019 Lok Sabha results public? The Quint report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Sep 24] Androids and iPhones hacked with just one WhatsApp click – and Tibetans are under attack, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 25] Sharp questions can help board oversee cybersecurity, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Sep 25] What we know about CrowdStrike, the cybersecurity firm trump mentioned in Ukraine call, and its billionaire CEO, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 25] 36% smaller firms witnessed data breaches in 2019 globally, ET Rise report.
  • [Sep 28] Defence Construction Canada hit by cyber attack – corporation’s team trying to restore full IT capability, Ottawa Citizen report.
  • [Sep 29] Experts call for collective efforts to counter cyber threats, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 29] Microsoft spots malware that turns PCs into zombie proxies, ET Telecom report
  • [Sep 29] US steps up scrutiny of airplane cybersecurity, The Wall Street Journal report.

Cyberwarfare

  • [Sep 24] 27 countries sign cybersecurity pledge urging rules-based control over cyberspace in Joint Statement, with digs at China and Russia, CNN report; IT world Canada report; Meri Talk report.
  • [Sep 26] Cyber Peace Institute fills a critical need for cyber attack victims, Microsoft blog.
  • [Sep 29] Britain is ‘at war every day’ due to constant cyber attacks, Chief of the Defence Staff says, The Telegraph report.

Telecom and 5G

  • [Sep 27] Telcos’ IT investments intact, auto companies may slow pace: IBM exec, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 29] Telecom players to lead digital transformation in India, BW Businessworld report.

More on Huawei

  • [Sep 22] Huawei confirms another nasty surprise for Mate 30 buyers, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 23] We’re on the same page with government on security: Huawei, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 24] The debate around 5G’s safety is getting in the way of science, Quartz report (paywall).
  • [Sep 24] Govt will take call on Huawei with national interest in mind: Telecom Secy, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 24] Huawei enables 5G smart travel system at Beijing airport, Tech Radar report.
  • [Sep 25] Huawei 5G backdoor entry unproven, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 25] US prepares $1 bn fund to replace Huawei ban kit, Tech Radar report.
  • [Sep 26] Google releases large dataset of deepfakes for researchers, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 26] Huawei willing to license 5G technology to a US firm, The Hindu Business Line report; Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 26] Southeast Asia’s top phone carrier still open to Huawei 5G, Bloomberg report.
  • [Sep 29] Russia rolls out the red carpet for Huawei over 5G, The Economic Times report.

Emerging Tech and AI

  • [Sep 20] Google researchers have reportedly achieved “Quantum Supremacy”, Financial Times report; MIT Technology Review report
  • [Sep 23] Artificial Intelligence revolution in healthcare in India: All we need to know, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Sep 23] A new joystick for the brain-controlled vehicles of the future, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 24] Computing and AI: Humanistic Perspectives from MIT, MIT News report.
  • [Sep 24] Emerging technologies such as AI, 5G posing threats to privacy, says report, China Daily report.
  • [Sep 25] Alibaba unveils chip developed for artificial intelligence era, Financial Times report.
  • [Sep 26] Pentagon wants AI to interpret ‘strategic activity around the globe, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 27] Only 10 jobs created for every 100 jobs taken away by AI, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 27] Experts say these emerging technologies should concern us, Business Insider report.
  • [Sep 27] What is on the horizon for export controls on ‘emerging technologies’? Industry comments may hold a clue, Modaq.com report.
  • [Sep 27] India can become world leader in artificial intelligence: Vishal Sikka, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 27] Elon Musk issues a terrifying prediction of ‘AI robot swarms’ and huge threat to mankind, The Daily Express (UK) report
  • [Sep 27] Russia’s national AI Centre is taking shape, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 29] Explained: What is ‘quantum supremacy’, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 29] Why are scientists so excited about a new quantum computing milestone?, Scroll.in report.
  • [Sep 29] Artificial Intelligence has a gender bias problem – just ask Siri, The Wire report.
  • [Sep 29] How AI is changing the landscape of digital marketing, Inc42 report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 21] Wim Zijnenburg, Defense One, Time to Harden International Norms on Armed Drones.
  • [Sep 23] David Sanger and Julian Barnes, The New York Times, The urgent search for a cyber silver bullet against Iran.
  • [Sep 23] Neven Ahmad, PRIO Blog, The EU’s response to the drone age: A united sky.
  • [Sep 23] Bisajit Dhar and KS Chalapati Rao, The Wire, Why an India-US Free Trade Agreement would require New Delhi to reorient key policies.
  • [Sep 23] Filip Cotfas, Money Control, Five reasons why data loss prevention has to be taken seriously.
  • [Sep 23] NF Mendoza, Tech Republic, 10 policy principles needed for artificial intelligence.
  • [Sep 24] Ali Ahmed, News Click, Are Indian armed forces turning partisan? : The changing civil-military relationship needs monitoring.
  • [Sep 24] Editorial, Deccan Herald, A polity drunk on Aadhaar.
  • [Sep 24] Mike Loukides, Quartz, The biggest problem with social media has nothing to do with free speech.
  • [Sep 24] Ananth Padmanabhan, Medianama, Civilian Drones: Privacy challenges and potential resolution. 
  • [Sep 24] Celine Herwijer and Dominic Kailash Nath Waughray, World Economic Forum, How technology can fast-track the global goals.
  • [Sep 24] S. Jaishankar, Financial Times, Changing the status of Jammu and Kashmir will benefit all of India.
  • [Sep 24] Editorial, Livemint, Aadhaar Mark 2.
  • [Sep 24] Vishal Chawla, Analytics India Magazine, AI in Defence: How Indi compares to US, China, Russia and South Korea.
  • [Sep 25] Craig Borysowich, IT Toolbox, Origin of Markets for Artificial Intelligence.
  • [Sep 25] Sudeep Chakravarti, Livemint, After Assam, NRC troubles may visit ‘sister’ Tripura.
  • [Sep 25] DH Kass, MSSP Blog, Cyber Warfare: New Rules of Engagement?
  • [Sep 25] Chris Roberts, Observer, How artificial intelligence could make nuclear war more likely.
  • [Sep 25] Ken Tola, Forbes, What is cybersecurity?
  • [Sep 25] William Dixon and  Jamil Farshchi, World Economic Forum, AI is transforming cybercrime. Here’s how we can fight back.
  • [Sep 25] Patrick Tucker, Defense One, Big Tech bulks up its anti-extremism group. But will it do more than talk?
  • [Sep 26] Udbhav Tiwari, Huffpost India, Despite last year’s Aadhaar judgement, Indians have less privacy than ever.
  • [Sep 26] Sylvia Mishra, Medianama, India and the United States: The time has come to collaborate on commercial drones.
  • [Sep 26] Subimal Bhattacharjee, The Hindu Business Line, Data flows and our national security interests.
  • [Sep 26] Ram Sagar, Analytics India Magazine, Top countries that are betting big on AI-based surveillance.
  • [Sep 26] Patrick Tucker, Defense One, AI will tell future medics who lives and who dies on the battlefield.
  • [Sep 26] Karen Hao, MIT Technology Review, This is how AI bias really happens – and why it’s so hard to fix.
  • [Sep 27] AG Noorani, Frontline, Kashmir dispute: Domestic or world issue?
  • [Sep 27] Sishanta Talukdar, Frontline, Final NRC list: List of exclusion.
  • [Sep 27] Freddie Stuart, Open Democracy, How facial recognition technology is bringing surveillance capitalism to our streets.
  • [Sep 27] Paul de Havilland, Crypto Briefing, Did Bitcoin crash or dip? Crypto’s trajectory moving forward.
  • [Sep 28] John Naughton, The Guardian, Will advances in quantum computing affect internet security?
  • [Sep 28] Suhrith Parthasarathy, The Hindu, The top court and a grave of freedom.
  • [Sep 28] Kazim Rizvi, YourStory, Data Protection Authority: the cornerstone to implement data privacy.
  • [Sep 28] Shekhar Gupta, The Print, Modi has convinced the world that Kashmir is India’s internal affair – but they’re still watching.
  • [Sep 29] Indrani Bagchi, The Economic Times, Why india needs to tread carefully on Kashmir.
  • [Sep 29] Medha Dutta Yadav, The New Indian Express, Data: Brave new frontier.
  • [Sep 29] Jon Markman, Forbes, New cybersecurity companies have their heads in the cloud.
  • [Sep 29] Editorial, The New York Times, On cybersecurity: Two scoops of perspective.
  • [Sep 30] Kuldip Singh, The Quint, New IAF Chief’s appointment: Why RKS Bhadauria must tread lightly.
  • [Sep 30] Karishma Koshal, The Caravan, With the data-protection bill in limbo, these policies contravene the right to privacy.

[September 16-23] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

Cybersecurity experts warned of a new ‘SIM jacking’ threat, the Kerala High Court recognizes a right to access internet as the internet shutdown in Kashmir entered its 50th day; more updates on the linkage of Aadhaar with voter IDs and social media as the Indian Army braces itself to adopt AI – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security.

Aadhaar

  • [Sep 16] Here are the amendments the Election Commission wants to the Representation of the People Act for Aadhaar-Voter ID linkage, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] Why Maj. Gen. Vombatkere has challenged Aadhaar Amendment Act in the Supreme Court; On WhatsApp and traceability, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 19] Drop in Aadhaar enrolments in J&K, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 20] In-principle decision to link Aadhaar with GST registration, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 23] Aadhaar card is now mandatory for nominees of your EPF account, Livemint report.

Digital India

  • [Sep 18] Indo-US ICT working group to meet on Sept 30, Oct 1, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 17] NITI Aayog frames guidelines for automated inspection of vehicles, ET Auto report.
  • [Sep 17] What TikTok told MEITY about its intermediary status, data collection, and policies for children, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] Soon, lands will have Aadhaar-like unique numbers, The Economic Times report; Business Today report.
  • [Sep 18] Drones to be used to digitally map India: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] PMO panel to release policy to boost handset manufacturing in India: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 19] Karnataka to set up exclusive body to boost innovation, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 20] ‘Right To Access Internet Is Part Of Right To Privacy And Right To Education’: Kerala HC, Live Law report; Hindu report; NDTV report.

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [Sep 15] Privacy debate between govt, Facebook continues; no winner yet, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 16] Singapore, Philippines sign MoU on personal data protection, The Manila Times report.
  • [Sep 16] Industry wants careful drafting of regulations on non-personal data, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 16] Here are the top three reasons why data protection is required in every business, Firstpost report.
  • [Sep 20] Sensitive, super-sensitive data must be stored locally in india: RS PRasad, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 20] Yet another data leak in Indian government database, exoposes multiple citizen IDs, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 22] Infosys co-founder Kris Gopalakrishnan to lead panel on protection of non-personal data, Financial Express report.

E-Commerce

  • [Sep 16] Odisha government makes e-marketplace mandatory for procurements, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 16] US antitrust officials investigate Amazon’s marketplace practices, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 17] Ministry of COnsumer Affairs extends deadline for comments on draft E-Commerce Guidelines 2019 to October 31, Medianama report.

FinTech and Digital Payments

  • [Sep 16] WhatsApp to roll out its payment services by end of this year: report, Medianama report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 18] RBI proposes norms to regulate payment gateways and payment aggregators, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 19] Regulatory shock for fintech firms: RBI blocks unregulated access to consumer credit history, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 19] DSCI, MeitY and Google India join hands for ‘Digital Payment Abhiyan’, The Economic Times report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Sep 16] The toss of a Bitcoin: How crypto ban will hurt 5 mn Indians, 20k Blockchain developers, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 16] US Sanctions three alleged crypto hacking groups from North Korea, Coin Desk report.
  • [Sep 16] Crypto firms assess how to comply with anti-money laundering standards, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Sep 19] Bitcoin and crypto wallets are now being targeted by malware, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 21] Weekends are for Altcoins when it comes to crypto market gains, ET Markets report.
  • [Sep 21] Chinese officials surprisingly chill on crypto, Decrypt report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Sep 13] Ransomware has a new target, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 16] Deep learning and machine learning to transform cybersecurity, Tech Wire Asia report.
  • [Sep 16] America needs a whole-of-society approach to cybersecurity. ‘Grand Challenges’ can help, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 17] Financial asset firm PCI ordered to pay $1.5 million for poor cybersecurity practices, ZD Net report.
  • [Sep 20] Current Act outdated, need to include cyber security in IT legal framework: DCA chief, The Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 20] 10% of IT budget should be used for cybersecurity: Rear Admiral Mohit Gupta, ET Times report.
  • [Sep 20] Once hacked, twice shy: How auto supplier Harman learned to fight cyber car jackers, ET Auto report.
  • [Sep 21] Cybersecurity a big opportunity for telcos, says IBM executive, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 23] Cybersecurity experts raise alarm over new SIM jacking threat, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 23] Cybersecurity: Tackling the menace of phishing, Financial Express report.

Tech and Law Enforcement; Surveillance

  • [Sep 15] Facebook moots ‘prospective’ solution to WhatsApp issue; India stands firm on traceability, Business Today report; Livemint report.
  • [Sep 18] Chinese firms are driving the rise of AI surveillance across Africa, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 18] Documents reveal how Russia taps phone companies for surveillance, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Sep 20] WhatsApp traceability case petitioner asks court to remove Aadhaar from the plea, consider only ‘authorised govt proofs’, Medianama report; Inc42 report; Bar & Bench report.
  • [Sep 20] Chennai-based KPost says traceability is possible, wants to be impleaded in WhatsApp case, Medianama report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 13] Pentagon’s former top hacker wants to inject some Silicon Valley into the defense industry, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 16] Here’s how startups are helping the Defence Ministry up its game, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 16] After 6 years in exile, Edward Snowden explains himself, Wired report.
  • [Sep 17] US tells Saudi Arabia oil attacks were launched from Iran, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Sep 17] Why Rafale jets may be inducted into IAF by next summer only, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 17] US Air Force to shift billions of dollars to network its weapons, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 18] India to achieve US$26 billion defence industry by 2025: Defence Minister, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 18] Mitigating security risks from emerging technologies, Army Technology analysis.
  • [Sep 18] Revised draft defence procurement norms to be ready by November end, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 20] The NSA is running a satellite hacking experiment, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 20] Army to host seminar on artificial intelligence next week; seeks to enhance lethality, The Economic Times report; India Today report; The New Indian Express report.
  • [Sep 20] Defence Procurement: Not a level playing field for private sector, PSUs still rule, Bharat Shakti report.
  • [Sep 20] Indian Air Force ‘accepts’ Rafale, formal hand over on Dussehra, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 22] Amid US-India blooming ties, Washington prepares to take down Indian air defence systems, EurAsian Times report.
  • [Sep 23] Government likely to order 36 more Rafale fighter jets, The Economic Times report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Sep 20] Social media companies raise concerns over Election Commission’s voluntary code of ethics, Medianama report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 16] Supreme Court says normalcy to return to Kashmir but with national security in mind, India Today report.
  • [Sep 16] Farooq Abdullah booked under Public Safety Act, committee to decide duration of arrest: report, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 17] Amnesty’s report on the (mis)use of Public Safety Act in J&K counters the govt’s narrative, Youth ki Awaaz report.
  • [Sep 18] China says Kashmir issue may not be a ‘major topic’ during Modi-Xi meet, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 19] In Pakistan-held Kashmir, growing calls for independence, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 20] Kashmir residents say they are being charged by telcos despite no service, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 20] UN Chief could discuss Kashmir issues at UNGA: UN spokesman, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 20] How military drones are becoming deadly weapons across the globe, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 22] Modi’s Digital India comes crashing down in Kashmir’s longest ever internet gag, The Wire report; The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 23] No clampdown in Kashmir, only communication line of terrorists stopped: Army Chief Bipin Rawat, India Today report.

Internal Security: NRC

  • [Sep 16] Those declared foreigners cannot file NRC appeal, say Assam govt, Hindustan Times report.
  • [Sep 18] NRC in Haryana, The Tribune report.
  • [Sep 18] NRC is an internal exercise, sovereign right of a country: EAM Jaishankar, Outlook report.
  • [Sep 18] Government will implement NRC across the country: Amit Shah, The Economic Times report.; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 21] NRC Officials issue public advisory against collection of identification documents, Guwahati Plus report.
  • [Sep 22] NRC-exluded Gurkhas not to approach foreigners’ Tribunals, seek empowered panel, The Hindu report; Times of India report.
  • [Sep 14] Final Assam NRC list, with 1.9 million exclusions, published online, Hindustan Times report.

National Security Law

  • [Sep 17] Pulwama to Aug 5: Delhi HC indicted govt for PSA arrests – in 80 pc cases, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 16] What is the Public Safety Act under which Farooq Abdullah has been detained? News Nation report.
  • [Sep 16] 52 years on, still no sign of national defence university, The Times of India report.
  • [Sep 16] NSA Doval gets national security, foreign policy as PMO defines roles of top officials, The Asian Age report.

Big Tech

  • [Sep 15] Facebook VP Nick Clegg says India’s policies will decide the fate of the internet, Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 17] Facebook Establishes Structure and Governance for an Independent Oversight Board, Facebook Newsroom announcement; Medianama report.
  • [Sep 19] Facebook expands definition of terrorist organization to limit extremism, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 22] Facebook is experimenting ith AI that lets you digitally get dressed, The Source report.
  • [Sep 23] Google braces for landmark global privacy ruling, Bloomberg report.

Telecom/5G

  • [Sep 16] 5G spectrum auction this year or in early 2020: Telecom Minister RS Prasad, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 20] TRAI opens consultation process for mergers and transfers in telecom sector, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 23] Indian masses have to wait 5-6 years to get true 5G experience, ET Telecom report.

More on Huawei

  • [Sep 17] Facing US ban, Huawei emerging as stronger tech competitor, The Hindu Business Line report, The Diplomat report.
  • [Sep 18] Huawei’s big test will be trying to sell a device with no Google apps outside China, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 18] Huawei users at risk as US blacklist cuts access to shared data on new cyber threats, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 20] Huawei makes sizeable 5G progress, bags 60 contracts: Ken Hu, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 21] Huawei unveils 5G training center in UK, ET Telecom report.

AI and Emerging Tech

  • [Sep 14] Artificial intelligence only goes so far in today’s economy, says MIT study, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 16] The US Govt will spend $1 bn on AI next year – not counting the Pentagon, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 18] Facial recognition systems to debut at Pune airport by 2020: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 18] AI stats news: AI is actively watching you in 75 countries, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 18] The Intel community ants to identify people from hundreds of yards away, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 19] Google setting up AI lab ‘Google Research India’ in Bengaluru, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 20] India is planning a huge China-style facial recognition program, The Economic Times report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 15] Nitin Pai, Livemint, The geopolitical profile of India tracks the economy’s trajectory.
  • [Sep 16] Paul Ravindranath, Tech Circle, Inclusion in technology is a compelling economic and business case.
  • [Sep 16] Markandey Katju, The Hindu, The litmus test for free speech.
  • [Sep 16] Vishal Chawla, Analytics India Magazine, What India can take away from Google’s settlement on employees’ freedom of expression.
  • [Sep 16] Editorial, Times of India, All talk: Fate of national defence university shows apathy towards defence modernisation.
  • [Sep 16] Jeff Hussey, Forbes, The gap between strong cybersecurity and demands for connectivity is getting massive.
  • [Sep 16] Kai Sedgwick, Bitcoin.com, How crypto became a gamblers paradise.
  • [Sep 17] Ajai Shukla, Business Standard, In picking strategic partners, the defence ministry isn’t spoilt for choice.
  • [Sep 17] Anthony Pfaff, Defense One, The Saudi-Oil attacks aren’t game changing. The Show how the Game has changed.
  • [Sep 17] Kayla Matthews, Security Boulevard, Who’s financially responsible for cybersecurity breaches?
  • [Sep 17] Anirudh Gotety, ET Markets, Check crypto trade, ban won’t help.
  • [Sep 17] PS Ahluwalia, Livemint, Rafale will add heft to IAF’s deterrence capabilities.
  • [Sep 17] Lorand Laksai, Privacy International, How China is supplying surveillance technology and training around the world.
  • [Sep 18] Tabish Khair, The Hindu, In Kashmir, shaking the apple tree.
  • [Sep 18] Catrin Nye, BBC News, Live facial recognition surveillance ‘must stop’ .
  • [Sep 18] Privacy International, the EU funds surveillance around the world: here’s what must be done about it.
  • [Sep 18] Joshua P Meltzer and Cameron F. Kerry, Brookings Institution, Cybersecurity and digital trade: Getting it right.
  • [Sep 19] Lt Gen HS Panag, The Print, Amit Shah’s political aim to recover PoK is not backed by India’s military capacity.
  • [Sep 20] Rifat Fareed, Al Jazeera, Farooq Abdullah’s arrest leaves India with few allies in Kashmir.
  • [Sep 22] Air Marshal (retd) M Matheswaran, Deccan Herald, Time for structural reforms, modernisation.

[September 2-9] CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy

This week, Delhi International Airport deployed facial recognition on a ‘trial basis’ for 3 months, landline communications were restored in Kashmir as the Government mulls over certification for online video streaming platforms like Netflix and PrimeVideo – presenting this week’s most important developments in law, tech and national security.

Aadhaar

  • [Sep 3] PAN will be issued automatically using Aadhaar for filing returns: CBDT, DD News report.
  • [Sep 3] BJD set to collect Aadhaar numbers of its members in Odisha, Opposition parties slam move, News 18 report; The New Indian Express report; Financial Express report.
  • [Sep 5] Aadhaar is secure, says ex-UIDAI chief, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 5] Passport-like Aadhaar centre opened in Chennai: Online appointment booking starts, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 8] Plans to link Janani Suraksha and Matra Vandan schemes with Aadhaar: CM Yogi Adityanath, Times of India report.

Digital India

  • [Sep 5] Digital media bodies welcome 26% FDI cap, Times of India report.
  • [Sep 6] Automation ‘not  threat’ to India’s IT industry, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 6] Tech Mahindra to modernise AT&T network systems, Tech Circle report.

Data Protection and Governance

  • [Sep 2] Health data comes under the purview of Data Protection Bill: IAMAI, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 2] Credit history should not be viewed as sensitive data, say online lenders, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 3] MeitY may come up with policy on regulation of non-personal data, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 3] MeitY to work on a white paper to gain clarity on public data regulations, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 6] Treating data as commons is more beneficial, says UN report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 9] Indian Government may allow companies to sell non-personal data of its users, Inc42 report, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 9] Tech firms may be compelled to share public data of its users, ET Tech report.

Data Privacy and Breaches

  • [Sep 2] Chinese face-swap app Zao faces backlash over user data protection, KrAsia report; Medianama report.
  • [Sep 2] Study finds Big Data eliminates confidentiality in court judgments, Swiss Info report.
  • [Sep 4] YouTube will pay $170 million to settle claims it violated child privacy laws, CNBC report; FTC Press Release.
  • [Sep 4] Facebook will now let people opt-out of its face recognition feature, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 4] Mental health websites in Europe found sharing user data for ads, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Sep 5] A huge database of Facebook users’ phone numbers found online, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Sep 5] Twitter has temporarily disabled tweet to SMS feature, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 6] Fake apps a trap to track your device and crucial data, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 6] 419 million Facebook users phone numbers leaked online, ET Tech report; Medianama report
  • [Sep 9] Community social media platform, LocalCircles, highlights data misuse worries, The Economic Times report.

Free Speech

  • [Sep 7] Freedom of expression is not absolute: PCI Chairman, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 7] Chennai: Another IAS officer resign over ‘freedom of expression’, Deccan Chronicle report.
  • [Sep 8] Justice Deepak Gupta: Law on sedition needs to be toned down if not abolished, The Wire report.

Online Content Regulation

  • [Sep 3] Government plans certification for Netflix, Amazon Prime, Other OTT Platforms, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 4] Why Justice for Rights went to court, asking for online content to be regulated, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 4] Youtube claims new hate speech policy working, removals up 5x, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 6] MeitY may relax norms on content monitoring for social media firms, ET Tech report; Inc42 report; Entrackr report.

E-Commerce

  • [Sep 4] Offline retailers accuse Amazon and Flipkart of deep discounting, predatory pricing and undercutting, Medianama report; Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 6] Companies rely on digital certification startups to foolproof customer identity, ET Tech report.

Digital Payments and FinTech

  • [Sep 3] A sweeping reset is in the works to bring India in line with fintech’s rise, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 3] Insurance and lending companies in agro sector should use drones to reduce credit an insurance risks: DEA’s report on fintech, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 3] Panel recommends regulating fintech startups, RBI extends KYC deadline for e-wallet companies, TechCircle report.
  • [Sep 4] NABARD can use AI and ML to create credit scoring registry: Finance Ministry report on FinTech, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 5] RBI denies action against Paytm Payments bank over PIL allegation, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 5] UPI entities may face market share cap, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 6] NBFC license makes fintech startups opt for lending, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 9] Ease access to credit history: Fintech firms, ET Markets report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Sep 1] Facebook hires lobbyists to boost crypto-friendly regulations in Washington, Yahoo Finance report.
  • [Sep 2] US Congress urged to regulate crypto under Bank Secrecy Act, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 2] Indian exchanges innovate as calls for positive crypto regulation escalate, Bitcoin.com report.
  • [Sep 4] Marshall Islands official explains national crypto with fixed supply, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 5] Apple thinks cryptocurrency has “long-term potential”, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 5] NSA reportedly developing quantum-resistant ‘crypto’, Coin Desk report.
  • [Sep 6] Crypto stablecoins may face bottleneck, ET Markets report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Sep 3] Google’s Android suffers sustained attacks by anti-Ugihur hackers, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 4] Firefox will not block third-party tracking and cryptomining by default for all users, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 4] Insurance companies are fueling ransomware attacks, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 5] Firms facing shortage of skilled workforce in cybersecurity: Infosys Research, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 5] Cybersecurity a boardroom imperative in almost 50% of global firms: Survey, Outlook report; ANI report.
  • [Sep 5] DoD unveils new cybersecurity certification model for contractors, Federal News Network report.
  • [Sep 5] Jigsaw Academy launches cybersecurity certification programme in India, DQ India report.
  • [Sep 6] Indians lead the world as Facebook Big Bug Hunters, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 6] Australia is getting a new cybersecurity strategy, ZD Net report.
  • [Sep 9] China’s 5G, industrial internet roll-outs to fuel more demand for cybersecurity, South China Morning Post report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Sep 3] Apache copters to be inducted today, The Pioneer report.
  • [Sep 3] How AI will predict Chinese and Russian moves in the Pacific, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 3] US testing autonomous border-patrol drones, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 3] Meet the coalition pushing for ‘Cyber Peace’ rules. Defense One report.
  • [Sep 4] US wargames to try out concepts for fighting China, Russia, defense One report.
  • [Sep 4] Southern Command hosts seminar on security challenges, Times of India report; The Indian Express report
  • [Sep 4] Russia, already India’s biggest arms supplier, in line for more, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 4] Pentagon, NSA prepare to train AI-powered cyber defenses, Defense One report.
  •  [Sep 5] Cabinet clears procurement of Akash missile system at Rs. 5500 crore, Times Now report.
  • [Sep 5] India to go ahead with $3.1 billion US del for maritime patrol aircraft, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 5] DGCA certifies ‘small’ category drone for complying with ‘No-Permission, No-Takeoff’ protocol, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 5] India has never been aggressor but will not hesitate in using its strength to defend itseld: Rajnath Singh, The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 5] Panel reviewing procurement policy framework to come out with new versions of DPP, DPM by March 2020, The Economic Times report; Business Standard report; Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 5] Russia proposes joint development of submarines with India, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 7] Proud of you: India tells ISRO after contact lost with CHandrayaan-2 lander, India Today report.

Tech and Elections

  • [Sep 4] ECI asks social media firms to follow voluntary code of ethics ahead of state polls: report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 6] Congress party to reorganise its data analytics department, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 5] Why the 2020 campaigns are still soft targets for hackers, Defense One report.
  • [Sep 5] Facebook meets with FBI to discuss election security, Bloomberg report.
  • [Sep 5] Facebook is making its own AI deepfakes to head off a disinformation disaster, MIT Tech Review report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Sep 4] Long convoy, intel failure: Multiple lapses led to Pulwama terror attack, finds CRPF inquiry, India Today report; Kashmir Media Service report; The Wire report.
  • [Sep 4] Extension of President’s Rule in Kashmir was not delayed, MHA says in report to SC lawyer’s article, Scroll.in report.
  • [Sep 6] Landline communication restored in Kashmir Valley: Report, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 7] Kashmir’s Shia areas face curbs, all Muharram processions banned, The Quint report.
  • [Sep 7] No question of army atrocities in Kashmir as it’s only fighting terrorists: NSA Ajit Doval, India Today report.
  • [Sep 8] More than 200 militants trying to cross into Kashmir from Pakistan: Ajit Doval, Money Control report.
  • [Sep 8] ‘Such unilateral actions are futile’, says India after Pakistan blocks airspace for President Kovind, Scroll.in report; NDTV report.

Internal Security: NRC

  • [Sep 2] Contradictory voices in Assam Congress son NRC: Tarun Gogoi slams it as waste paper, party MP says historic document, India Today report.
  • [Sep 3] Why Amit Shah is silent on NRC, India Today report.
  • [Sep 7] AFSPA extended for 6 months in Assam, Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 7] At RSS mega meet, concerns over Hindus being left out of NRC: Sources, Financial Express report.

National Security Institutions and Legislation

  • [Sep 5] Azhar, Saeed, Dawood declared terrorists under UAPA law, Deccan Herald report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 8] Home Minister says India’s national security apparatus more robust than ever, Livemint report.
  • [Sep 8] Financial safety not national security reason for women to join BSF: Study, India Today report.

Telecom/5G

  • [Sep 6] Security is an issue in 5G: NCSC Pant on Huawei, Times of India report.

More on Huawei

  • [Sep 1] Huawei believes banning it from 5G will make countries insecure, ZD Net report.
  • [Sep 2] Huawei upbeat on AI strategy for India, no word on 5G roll-out plans yet, Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 3] Huawei denies US allegations of technology theft, NDTV Gadgets 260 report; Business Insider report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Sep 3] Shocking Huawei ‘Extortion and Cyberattack’ allegations in new US legal fight, Forbes report; Livemint report, BBC News report; The Verge report
  • [Sep 3] Committed to providing the most advanced products: Huawei, ET Telecom report.
  • [Sep 4] Huawei says 5G rollout in India will be delayed by 3 years if it’s banned, Livemint report
  • [Sep 4] Trump not interested in talking Huawei with China, Tech Circle report.
  • [Sep 5] Nepal’s only billionaire enlists Huawei to transform country’s elections, Financial Times report.
  • [Sep 8] Trump gets shocking new Huawei warning – from Microsoft, Forbes report.

Emerging Tech

  • [Aug 30] Facebook is building an AI Assistant Inside Minecraft, Forbes report.
  • [Sep 3] AWS partners with IIT KGP for much needed push to India’s AI skilling, Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 3] Behind the Rise of China’s facial recognition giants, Wired report.
  • [Sep 4] Facebook won’t use facial recognition on you unless you tell it to, Quartz report.
  • [Sep 4] An AI app that turns you into a movie star has risked the privacy of millions, MIT Technology Review report.
  • [Sep 6] Police use f facial recognition is accepted by British Court, The New York Times report.
  • [Sep 6] Facebook, Microsoft announce challenge to detect deepfakes, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 6] Facial recognition tech to debut at Delhi airport’s T3 terminal; on ‘trial basis’ for next three months, Medianama report.

Internet Shutdowns

  • [Sep 3] After more than 10 weeks, internet services in towns of Rakhine and Chin restored, Medianama report.
  • [Sep 4] Bangladesh bans mobile phone services in Rohingya camps, Medianama report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Sep 2] Michael J Casey, Coin Desk, A crypto fix for a broken international monetary system.
  • [Sep 2] Yengkhom Jilangamba, News18 Opinion, Not a solution to immigration problem, NRC final list has only brought to surface fault lines within society.
  • [Sep 2] Samuel Bendett, Defense One, What Russian Chatbots Think About Us.
  • [Sep 2] Shivani Singh, Hindustan Times, India’s no first use policy is a legacy that must be preserved.
  • [Sep 3] Abir Roy, Financial Express, Why a comprehensive law is needed for data protection. 
  • [Sep 3] Dhirendra Kumar, The Economic Times, Aadhaar is back for mutual fund investments.
  • [Sep 3] Ashley Feng, Defense One, Welcome to the new phase of US-China tech competition.
  • [Sep 3] Nesrine Malik, The Guardian, The myth of the free speech crisis.
  • [Sep 3] Tom Wheeler and David Simpson, Brookings Institution, Why 5G requires new approaches to cybersecurity.
  • [Sep 3] Karen Roby, Tech Republic, Why cybersecurity is a big problem for small businesses.
  • [Sep 4] Wendy McElroy, Bitcoin.com, Crypto needs less regulation, not more.
  • [Sep 4] Natascha Gerlack and Elisabeth Macher, Modaq.com, US CLOUD Act’s potential impact on the GDPR. 
  • [Sep 4] Peter Kafka, Vox, The US Government isn’t ready to regulate the internet. Today’s Google fine shows why.
  • [Sep 5] Murtaza Bhatia, Firstpost, Effective cybersecurity can help in accelerating business transformation. 
  • [Sep 5] MG Devasahayam, The Tribune, Looking into human rights violations by Army.
  • [Sep 5] James Hadley, Forbes, Cybersecurity Frameworks: Not just for bits and bytes, but flesh and blood too.
  • [Sep 5] MR Subramani, Swarajya Magazine, Question at heart of TN’s ‘WhatsApp traceability case’: Are you endangering national security if you don’t link your social media account with Aadhaar? 
  • [ Sep 5] Justin Sherman, Wired, Cold War Analogies are Warping Tech Policy.
  • [Sep 6] Nishtha Gautam, The Quint, Peer pressure, militant threats enforcing civil curfew in Kashmir?
  • [Sep 6] Harsh V Pant and Kartik Bommakanti, Foreign Policy, Modi reimagines the Indian military.
  • [Sep 6] Shuman Rana, Business Standard, Free speech in the crosshairs.
  • [Sep 6] David Gokhshtein, Forbes, Thoughts on American Crypto Regulation: Considering the Pros and Cons.
  • [Sep 6] Krishan Pratap Singh, NDTV Opinion, How to read Modi Government’s stand on Kashmir.
  • [Sep 7] MK Bhadrakumar, Mainstream Weekly, The Big Five on Kashmir.
  • [Sep 7] Greg Ness, Security Boulevard, The Digital Cyber Security Paradox.
  • [Sep 8] Lt. Gen. DS Hoods, Times of India, Here’s how to take forward the national security strategy.
  • [Sep 8] Smita Aggarwal, Livemint, India’s unique public digital platforms to further inclusion, empowerment. 

CCG’s Week in Review: Curated News in Information Law and Policy [August 26-September 2]

MeitY sought views on ‘non-personal data’; India and France announce joint research consortium on AI and digital partnership after NSA-level talks; Section 144 CrPC imposed in areas of Assam anticipating unrest after the publication of the NRC list as the MHA holds a high-level security meet on Kashmir; and the tussle between MeitY and the Niti Aayog for control over the Rs. 7000 cr AI project continues – presenting this week’s most important developments at the intersection of law and tech.

Aadhaar

  • [Aug 27] Aadhaar integration can weed out fake voters: UIDAI’s Ajay Bhushan Pandey, Business Standard report.
  • [Aug 27] Government to intensify Aadhaar enrolment in J&K after Oct 31: Report, Medianama report; Times Now report; The Quint report
  • [Aug 27] Interview: Why I filed a case to link Aadhaar and Social Media Accounts, The Quint report.
  • [Aug 27] Aadhaar database cannot be hacked even after a billion attempts: Ravi shankar Prasad, Money Control report.
  • [Aug 27] Most dangerous situation: Justice Srikrishna on EC-Aadhaar linking, The Quint report.
  • [Aug 28] Aadhaar ads to women’s problems in India. Here’s why. The Wire report.
  • [Aug 28] What Centre will tell Supreme Court on Aadhaar and social media account linkage, The Hindustan Time report.
  • [Aug 28] All residents of an MP village have the same date of birth on their Aadhaar, Business Standard report.
  • [Aug 29] Blood banks advised to ask for donors’ Aadhaar cards, Times of India report.
  • [Aug 29] Aadhaar continues to evolve and grow as India issues biometric seafarers’ ID, Biometric Update report.
  • [Aug 31] Aadhaar mandatory for farmers to avail crop loan in Odisha, Odisha Sun Times report.
  • [Sep 1] NRIs to get Aadhaar sans 180-day wait in 3 months, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 1] Aadhaar-liquor link to check bottle littering? Deccan Herald report.
  • [Sep 1] Linking Aadhaar with social media can lead to insidious profiling of people, says Apar Gupta, Times of India report.

Digital India

  • [Aug 27] NASSCOM-DSCI on National Health Stack: separate regulatory body for health, siloed registries, usage of single ID, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] Govt looks to develop electronics component manufacturing base in India: MeitY Secretary, YourStory report; Money Control report.
  • [Aug 30] India is encouraging foreign firms to shift biz from China: report, Medianama report; Reuters report.
  • [Aug 30] Wipro, Google to speed up digital shift of enterprises, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 30] Government committed to reach public via technology, Times of India report.
  • [Aug 31] MeitY and Google tie up to Build for Digital India, Livemint report; India TV report; ANI report; The Statesman report; Inc42 report.
  • [Sep 1] Govt is setting up high-tech R&D facilities for India Inc to encourage big-bang projects, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 1] Digitalisation is now forcing NASSCOM to reinvent itself, ET Tech report.

Free Speech

  • [Aug 26] IAS Officer who quit over ‘losing freedom of expression’ was facing disciplinary action for misconduct, Swarajya Magazine report.
  • [Aug 27] Withdraw media curbs in Kashmir, The Hindu report.
  • [Aug 27] EU data caught in Facebook audio transcribing, Politico report.
  • [Aug 30] BJP issues gag order on Pragya Thakur after ‘black magic’ remark post Arun Jaitley’s death. News 18 report.
  • [Aug 31] Chargesheet filed against ex-Union Minister Salman Khurshid over remark in UP CM Yogi Adityanath, India Today report.
  • [Aug 31] Rafale deal: Rahul Gandhi summoned by Mumbai court for calling Narendra Modi ‘commander-in-thief’, Scroll.in report.
  • [Aug 31] Media freedom being curbed, says Mamata, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 1] Madurai man booked for Facebook post against Centre, Army, Times of India report.

Internet Shutdowns

  • [Aug 26] Internet suspended in Indonesia’s Papua region for ‘ security and order’ amid protests, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 29] Months after pledge to open internet, Ethiopia disrupts connectivity amidst communal violence, Global Voices report.

Data Protection and Privacy

  • [Aug 27] Government’s approach to data is dangerous, says Justice Srikrishna, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] Microsoft’s lead EU data watchdog is looking into fresh Windows 10 privacy concerns, Tech Crunch report.
  • [Aug 30] This Week in Tech: Facebook’s privacy pivot (business model not included), The New York Times report.
  • [Aug 31] MeitY seeks views on non-personal data, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 31] Google to pay out $150-200m over YouTube privacy claims: reports, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 2] Let data protection Bill deal with personal health data, says IAMAI, Business Standard report.

Intermediary Liability

  • [Aug 27] Government notices and issue in TikTok’s ShareChat notices: To ask TikTok how its intermediary status is consistent with claims on owning content, ET Telecom report; Inc42 report.

E-Commerce

  • [Aug 27] Thailand to tax e-commerce companies from next year, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] NRAI sends notices to Swiggy, Zomato, others on deep discounting, lack of transparency, Tech Circle report.
  • [Aug 29] MeitY may not include E-commerce data in privacy bill, The Economic Times report; Medianama report; Inc42 report.
  • [Aug 29] 30% local sourcing FDI rule on single brand retailers relaxed, physical stores before online sales not necessary, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 29] Amazon moves Supreme Court against direct selling companies: Report, Medianama report; The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 30] India big enough for both e-commerce and small retailers: Rajiv umar, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 30] Zomato, Swiggy and NRAI discuss issues, to meet again in September, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 30] DPIIT asks e-commerce firms to upload FDI compliance certifications, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 31] Why restaurants and aggregators are locking horns over discounts, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 31] CAIT slams Amazon in public discussion over deep discounting, Entrackr report.
  • [Aug 31] E-marketplaces giving preferential treatment to come: Sellers, ET Tech report.
  • [Sep 2] Swiggy likely to cap restaurant commissions at 25%, ET Tech report.

Digital Payments and FinTech

  • [Aug 30] Another extension for e-wallets: RBI gives 6 months to complete KYC, Entrackr report.
  • [Sep 2] Banks may take 3 years for tech merger, ET Tech report.

Cryptocurrencies

  • [Aug 25] IRS sends new round of letter to Bitcoin and Crypto holders, Coin Telegraph report.
  • [Aug 26] 25]year old Bitcoin seller faces life sentence for unlicensed exchange, Coin Desk report.
  • [Aug 26] Telegram’s 300 million users could soon be trading Bitcoin and Crypto- Despite serious security warning, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] Crypto-jacking virus infects 850,000 serves, hackers run off with millions, Coin Desk report.
  • [Aug 30] UN Official: Crypto makes policing child trafficking ‘exceptionally difficult’, Coin Desk report.
  • [Aug 30] How do we get crypto currency to circulate as money? This experiment might hold the answer, The Print report.
  • [Aug 30] Privacy in Crypto: The Impact of Rising Terrorism Concerns, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] Telegram to release its cryptocurrency by October 31, Medianama report; ET Markets report.

Tech and Law Enforcement

  • [Aug 26] End-to-end encryption not essential to WhatsApp as a platform: Tamil Nadu Advocate General, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 27] WhatsApp traceability vulnerable to falsification, claims IFF expert submission, Firstpost report; Medianama report.
  • [Aug 31] A new kind of cybercrimes uses AI and your voice against you, Quartz report.

Tech and National Security

  • [Aug 26] Russia to supply critical components of Gaganyaan, Free Press Journal report.
  • [Aug 26] CAG report on offset deal in Rafale contract to be tabled in Winter Session: Report, News Nation report.
  • [Aug 27] Gaganyaan Mission: Russia to train four Indian astronauts from November, DNA India report.
  • [Aug 27] Centre inks Rs 380 cr deal with private firm for nine precision approach radars, DNA India report.
  • [Aug 27] Navy needs “assured” budget support to build capacity: CHief, The Economic Times report; The Indian Express report; Outlook India report.
  • [Aug 27] ITI Nagpur students to learn to assemble Rafale jets, The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 27] Incentivise pvt sector for defence production: Brookings, Outlook India report.
  • [Aug 28] Amazon and Microsoft unchallenged in $10bn ‘Jedi’ contract review, Financial Times report.
  • [Aug 28] India’s HAL deepens private sector engagement through Make-II initiative, Jane’s 360 report.
  • [Aug 29] NSA-level meet today, France keen to sell second batch of 36 Rafales, The Indian Express report; Financial Express report; ANI News report.
  • [Aug 30] Russia set to offer submarines during Modi-Putin summit, Defence Aviation Post report.
  • [Aug 30] India must be prepared to face any threat: Vice President Venkaiah Naidu, The New Indian Express report.
  • [Aug 31] US to use fake social media to check on people entering the country, India Today report.

Cybersecurity

  • [Aug 26] Ransomware threat raises National Guard’s role in state cybersecurity in the United States, Statescoop report.
  • [Aug 26] The Pentagon wants to bolster Defense Innovation Unit’s Cyber defenses, Nextgov report.
  • [Aug 27] The importance of training: Cybersecurity awareness as a firewall, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] Why cybersecurity is a central ingredient in evolving digital business models, Financial Express report.
  • [Aug 28] Cyber security and the finance sector: the need for stronger data protection capabilities, Security Boulevard report.
  • [Aug 28] India to unveil cybersecurity strategy policy early next year, Financial Express report; Inc42 report.
  • [Aug 28] Face it – Biometrics to be big in cybersecurity, Forbes report.
  • [Aug 28] MHA has taken various measures to counter cyber threat: MoS Kishan Reddy, United News of India report.
  • [Aug 30] Google says hackers have put ‘monitoring implants’ in iPhones for years, The Guardian report; DW report.
  • [Aug 30] Employee errors responsible for half of cybersecurity incidents: report, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Aug 30] Despite changes by Microsoft, Windows 10 might still be remotely spying on you, Digital Trends report.
  • [Aug 30] Only 5-10% pharma firms have cybersecurity: Expert, Times of India report.

Internal Security: J&K

  • [Aug 27] Kashmir updates: UN Chief urges all parties to avoid escalation, India Today report.
  • [Aug 27] Kashmir: MHA to hold high level security meet; SC will hear Faesal and Shehla Rashid, The Week report.
  • [Aug 29] There is only fear and no ‘freedom’ in the Northeast and J&K, The Wire report.
  • [Aug 29] ‘Feel unsafe at home’: J&K residents accuse security forces of raiding houses, arresting ‘innocent’ Kashmiri youth under Public Safety Act, Firstpost report.
  • [Aug 30] Jammu and Kashmir: Rumours fly thick but slow in absence of communication, The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 30] Army Chief to review security in J&K today, his first visit after Art 370 repeal, The Hindustan Times report.
  • [Aug 31] Mobile services restored partially in Kashmir’s Kupwara district, ET Telecom report.

Internal Security: North East and the NRC

  • [Aug 29] Security measures tightened in Assam, Sec 144 CrPC in Guwahati ahead of final NRC, India Today report.
  • [Aug 30] Assam police declare 14 districts as sensitive areas, Times of India report.
  • [Aug 30] How the National Citizenship Registration in Assam is shaping a new national identity in India, The Conversation report.
  • [Aug 30] NRC not to solve foreigner problem: Himanta Biswa Sarma, Deccan herald report.
  • [Aug 31] No Aadhaar from elsewhere for those excluded from NRC, ET Tech report.
  • [Aug 31] Assam on edge a day before publication of NRC, India Today report.
  • [Sep 1] Assam BJP, Opposition unhappy with updated NRC, India Today report.
  • [Sep 1] Assam NRC final list: Centre in no hurry for follow-up, The Hindu report.
  • [Sep 1] Happy to know how many are doubtful citizens, says AIUDF, The Telegraph report.
  • [Sep 1] Indian citizens register excludes 1.9m Assam residents, Financial Times report.

Telecom/5G

  • [Aug 26] India will not compromise on security of telecom networks: Dhotre, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 27] 5G spectrum sale may be deferred to early 2020, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 27] Govt invites bids to select agency for conducting spectrum auction, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 28] Reliance Jio records highest telecom revenue market share in Q1FY20, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 31] Govt focusing on improved telecom connectivity in NE, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 28] 3G network to shut by December, 5G adoption not expected, Phonepe, Paytm and more, Medianama report.

More on Huawei

  • [Aug 26] 5G trials: China aggression will work against Huawei, say India officials, India Express report.
  • [Aug 27] New Huawei OS Shock: ‘Confirmation’ of Russian Software for mobile devices, Forbes report; Reuters report.
  • [Aug 27] Huawei: UK to make 5G decision ‘by the autumn’, BBC News report.
  • [Aug 29] Huawei’s next flagship phone blocked from using Google apps, The Guardian report.
  • [Aug 30] Huawei under probe by US prosecutors over new allegations, ET Telecom report; Business Standard report.
  • [Sep 1] Huawei just launched 5G in Russia with Putin’s Support: ‘Hello Splinternet’, Forbes report.

Emerging Tech and AI

  • [Aug 27] Niti Aayog, MeitY spar over Rs. 7,000 crore AI mission, ET Telecom report; Inc42 report; Entrackr report.
  • [Aug 27] India, France announce joint research consortium on AI and a digital partnership, Medianama report.
  • [Aug 28] Elon Musk and Jack Ma debate AI at China Summit, Bloomberg report.
  • [Aug 28] Is this Aadhaar of the future? Facial biometric technology-based chip-enabled cards issues, The Economic Times report.
  • [Aug 28] National security imperative to become $5trillion economy: Amit Shah, Livemint report; The Asian Age report.
  • [Aug 29] Swedish school fined over use of facial recognition, Lexology report.

Big Tech

  • [Aug 26] India is important, that’s why bringing hardware devices here: Google, ET Telecom report.
  • [Aug 26] Facebook wins appeal against German Data-Collection ban, The Wall Street Journal report.
  • [Aug 26] Instagram’s latest assault on Snapchat is a messaging app called Threads, The Verge report.
  • [Aug 28] Google is moving Pixel production from China to an old Nokia factory in Vietnam, The Verge report.
  • [Aug 30] Google expands scope of its bug bounty programme, unveils data protection reward programme for developers, NDTV Gadgets 360 report.

Opinions and Analyses

  • [Aug 25] Jon Evans, Tech Crunch, Crypto means Cryptotheology.
  • [Aug 26] Guest Author, Medianama, Should Indian Copyright law prevent text and data mining?
  • [Aug 26] Vishal Chawla, Analytics India Magazine, Why IoT security standards are crucial in preventing hackers from stealing your data.
  • [Aug 26] The Hindu Editorial, ON the wrong side: On PCI backing Kashmir restrictions.
  • [Aug 26] Robert S Taylor, Lawfare, How to measure Cybersecurity.
  • [Aug 26] Mike Giglio, Defense One, China’s Spies Are on the Offensive. Can the US Fend Them Off?
  • [Aug 27] Gurshabad Grover, The Hindu, A judicial overreach into matters of regulation.
  • [Aug 27] Maj Gen Harsha Kakkar, Bharat Shakti, Foreign Policy and National Security.
  • [Aug 27] A Vinod Kumar, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, ‘No First Use’ is Not Sacrosanct: Need a Theatre-Specific Posture for Flexible Options.
  • [Aug 27] Jack Cable, Harvard Business Review, Every computer science degree should require a course in cybersecurity.
  • [Aug 27] Rahul Singh, The Hindustan Times, Key decisions underline govt’s focus on building stronger military.
  • [Aug 27] The Economic Times Opinion, Aadhaar linkage with social media is troublesome.
  • [Aug 28] Vikram Koppikar, Money Control, Aadhaar and Social Media: It’s a delicate balance between security and privacy. 
  • [Aug 28] Abhijit Singh. The Hindu, The CHief of Defence Staff needs an enabling institutional infrastructure.
  • [Aug 28] Samantha Ravish, Defense One, The US must prepare for a Cyber ‘Day After’.
  • [Aug 28] Mike Masnick, Tech Dirt, Protocols, not platformsL A technological approach to free speech.
  • [Aug 29] Dhruva Jaishankar, The Hindustan Times, The saga of India’s indigenous defence production.
  • [Aug 29] The Print, Does War & Peace taunt show how poorly equipped India judges are to handle security cases?
  • [Aug 30] Rohan Seth, The Asian Age, Wider debate needed on major changes in data protection law.
  • [Aug 30] Amit Cowshish, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, CDS: A pragmatic blueprint required for implementation.
  • [Aug 30] Crystal Lee and Jonathan Zong, Slate, Consent is not an ethical rubber stamp.
  • [Aug 30] Gopal Krishna, Business Today, Why the promised right to privacy and data protection law hasn’t been enacted yet. 
  • [Aug 31] Bidanda Chengappa, Deccan Herald, Peacetime spying is legitimate.
  • [Aug 31] Sandipan Deb, Livemint, When social media monopolies prey on freedom of expression.

The Proposed Regulation of DNA Profiling Raises Critical Privacy Concerns

The Union Cabinet recently approved the DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018 (“DNA Profiling Bill”), which is scheduled to be introduced in Parliament today (31st July). The Bill is largely based on the 2017 Law Commission Report on “Human DNA Profiling – A draft Bill for the Use and Regulation of DNA-Based Technology”, which seeks to expand “the application of DNA-based forensic technologies to support and strengthen the justice delivery system of the country.

Apart from identifying suspects and maintaining a registry of offenders, the Bill seeks to enable cross-matching between missing persons and unidentified dead bodies, and establishing victim identity in mass disasters.

Features of the Bill

The Bill envisages the setting up of a DNA profiling board which shall function as the regulatory authority and lay down guidelines, standards and procedures for the functioning of DNA laboratories and grant them accreditation. The board will also assist the government in setting up new data banks and advise the government on “all issues relating to DNA laboratories”. In addition, it will make recommendations on legislation and practices relating to privacy issues around storage and access to DNA samples.  

DNA data banks will also be established, consisting of a national data bank as well as the required number of regional data banks. Regional data banks must mandatorily share all their information with the national data bank. Every data bank shall maintain databases of five categories of data – crime scenes, suspects or undertrials, offenders, missing persons, and unknown deceased persons.

The 2017 draft has made significant changes to address concerns raised about the previous 2015 draft. These include removing the index of voluntarily submitted DNA profiles, deleting the provision allowing the DNA profiling board to create any other index as necessary, detailing serious offences for DNA collection, divesting the database manager of discretionary powers, and introducing redressal mechanisms by allowing any aggrieved person to approach the courts. Additionally, it has added legislative provisions authorising licensed laboratories, police stations and courts to collect and analyse DNA from certain categories of people, store it in data banks and use it to identify missing/ unidentified persons and as evidence during trial.

The new Bill has attempted to address previous concerns by limiting the purpose of DNA profiling, stating that it shall be undertaken exclusively for identification of a person and not to extract any other information. Safeguards have been put in place against misuse in the form of punishments for disclosure to unauthorised persons.

The Bill mandates consent of an accused before collection of bodily substances for offences other than specified. However, any refusal, if considered to be without good cause, can be disregarded by a Magistrate if there is reasonable cause to believe that such substances can prove or disprove guilt. Any person present during commission of a crime, questioned regarding a crime, or seeking a missing family member, may volunteer in writing to provide bodily substances. The collection of substances from minors and disabled persons requires the written consent of their parents or guardians. Collection from victims or relatives of missing persons requires the written consent of the victim or relative. Details of persons who are not offenders or suspects in a crime cannot be compared to the offenders’ or suspects’ index, and any communication of details can only be to authorised persons.

Areas of Concern

Although the Bill claims that DNA testing is 99.9% foolproof, doubts have recently been raised about the possibility of a higher error rate than previously claimed. This highlights the need for the proposed legislation to provide safeguards in the event of error or abuse.

The issue of security of all the data concentrated in data banks is of paramount importance in light of its value to both government and private entities. The Bill fails to clearly spell out restrictions or to specify who has access to these data banks.

Previous iterations of the Bill have prompted civil society to express their reservations about the circumstances under which DNA can be collected, issues of consent to collection, access to and retention of data, and whether such information can be exploited for purposes beyond those envisaged in the legislation. As in the case of Aadhaar, important questions arise regarding how such valuable genetic information will be safeguarded against theft or contamination, and to what extent this information can be accessed by different agencies. The present Bill has reduced the number of CODIS loci that can be processed from 17 to 13, thus restricting identification only to the necessary extent. However, this provision has not been explicitly stated in the provisions of the legislation itself, casting doubt over the manner in which it will be implemented.

Written consent is mandatory before obtaining a DNA sample, however withholding of consent can be overruled by a Magistrate if deemed necessary. An individual’s DNA profile can only be compared against crime scene, missing person or unknown deceased person indices. A court order is required to expunge the profile of an undertrial or a suspect, whose profile can also be removed after filing of a police report. Any person who is not a suspect or a convicted offender can only have their profile removed on a written petition to the director of the data bank. The consent clause is also waived if a person has been accused of a crime punishable either by death or more than seven years in prison. However, the Bill is silent on how such a person’s profile is to be removed on acquittal.

Moreover, the Bill states that “the information contained in the crime scene index shall be retained”. The crime scene index captures a much wider data set as compared to the offenders’ index, since it includes all DNA evidence found around the crime scene, on the victim, or on any person who may be associated with the crime. The indefinite retention of most of these categories of data is unnecessary, as well as contrary to earlier provisions that provide for such data to be expunged. However, the government has claimed that such information will be removed “subject to judicial orders”. Importantly, the Bill does not contain a sunset provision that would ensure that records are automatically expunged after a prescribed period.

While the Bill provides strict penalties for deliberate tampering or contamination of biological evidence, the actual mechanisms for carrying out quality control and analysis have been left out of the parent legislation and left to the purview of the rules.

Crucially, the Bill has not explicitly defined privacy and security protections such as implementation of safeguards, use and dissemination of genetic information, security and confidentiality and other privacy concerns within the legislation itself – leaving such considerations to the purview of regulation (and out of parliamentary oversight). The recently released Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018 does little to allay these concerns. As per this Bill, DNA Banks will be classified as significant data fiduciaries, and thus subject to audits, data protection impact assessments, and appointment of a special data protection officer. However, although genetic information is classified as sensitive personal data, the Data Protection Bill does not provide sufficient safeguards against the processing of such data by the State. In light of the proposed data protection framework, and the Supreme Court confirming that the right to privacy (including the right to bodily integrity) is a fundamental right, the DNA Profiling Bill as it stands in its present form cannot be implemented without violating the fundamental right to privacy.