Comments on the draft amendments to the IT Rules (Jan 2023)

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (“MeitY”) proposed amendments to the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 (“Intermediary Guidelines”) on January 17, 2023. The draft amendments aim to regulate online gaming, but also seek to have intermediaries “make reasonable efforts” to cause their users not to upload or share content identified as “fake” or “false” by the Press Information Bureau (“PIB”), any Union Government department or authorised agency (See proposed amendment to Rule 3(1)(b)(v).) The draft amendments in their current form raise certain concerns that we believe merit additional scrutiny.  

CCG submitted comments on the proposed amendment to Rule 3(1)(b)(v), highlighting its key feedback and concerns. The comments were authored by Archit Lohani and Vasudev Devadasan and reviewed by Sachin Dhawan and Jhalak M. Kakkar. Some of the key issues raised in our comments are summarised below.

  1. Misinformation, fake, and false, include both unlawful and lawful expression

The proposed amendment does not define the term “misinformation” or provide any guidance on how determinations that content is “fake” or “false” are arrived at. Misinformation can include various forms of content, and experts have identified up to seven subtypes of misinformation such as: imposter content; fabricated content; false connection; false context; manipulated content; misleading content; and satire or parody. Different subtypes of misinformation can cause different types of harm (or no harm at all) and are treated differently under the law. Misinformation or false information thus includes both lawful and unlawful speech (e.g., satire is constitutionally protected speech).  

Within the broad ambit of misinformation, the draft amendment does not provide sufficient guidance to the PIB and government departments on what sort of expression is permissible and what should be restricted. The draft amendment effectively provides them with unfettered discretion to restrict both unlawful and lawful speech. When seeking to regulate misinformation, experts, platforms, and other countries have drawn up detailed definitions that take into consideration factors such as intention, form of sharing, virality, context, impact, public interest value, and public participation value. These definitions recognize the potential multiplicity of context, content, and propagation techniques. In the absence of clarity over what types of content may be restricted based on a clear definition of misinformation, the draft amendment will restrict both unlawful speech and constitutionally protected speech. It will thus constitute an overbroad restriction on free speech.

  1. Restricting information solely on the ground that it is “false” is constitutionally impermissible

Article 19(2) of the Indian Constitution allows the government to place reasonable restrictions on free speech in the interest of the sovereignty, integrity, or security of India, its friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or contempt of court. The Supreme Court has ruled that these grounds are exhaustive and speech cannot be restricted for reasons beyond Article 19(2), including where the government seeks to block content online. Crucially, Article 19(2) does not permit the State to restrict speech on the ground that it is false. If the government were to restrict “false information that may imminently cause violence”, such a restriction would be permissible as it would relate to the ground of “public order” in Article 19(2). However, if enacted, the draft amendment would restrict online speech solely on the ground that it is declared “false” or “fake” by the Union Government. This amounts to a State restriction on speech for reasons beyond those outlined in Article 19(2), and would thus be unconstitutional. Restrictions on free speech must have a direct connection to the grounds outlined in Article 19(2) and must be a necessary and proportionate restriction on citizens’ rights.

  1. Amendment does not adhere with the procedures set out in Section 69A of the IT Act

The Supreme Court upheld Section 69A of the IT Act in Shreya Singhal v Union of India inter alia because it permitted the government blocking of online content only on grounds consistent with Article 19(2) and provided important procedural safeguards, including a notice, hearing, and written order of blocking that can be challenged in court. Therefore, it is evident that the constitutionality of the government’s blocking power over is contingent on the substantive and procedural safeguards provided by Section 69A and the Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking for Access of Information by Public) Rules, 2009. The proposed amendment to the Intermediary Guidelines would permit the Union Government to restrict online speech in a manner that does not adhere to these safeguards. It would permit the blocking of content on grounds beyond those specified in Article 19(2), based on a unilateral determination by the Union Government, without a specific procedure for notice, hearing, or a written order.

  1. Alternate methods to counter the spread of misinformation

Any response to misinformation on social media platforms should be based on empirical evidence on the prevalence and harms of misinformation on social media. Thus, as a first step, social media companies should be required to provide greater transparency and facilitate researcher access to data. There are alternative methods to regulate the spread of misinformation that may be more effective and preserve free expression, such as labelling or flagging misinformation. We note that there does not yet exist widespread legal and industry consensus on standards for independent fact-checking, but organisations such as the ‘International Fact-Checking Network’ (IFCN) have laid down certain principles that independent fact-checking organisations should comply with. Having platforms label content pursuant to IFCN fact checks, and even notify users when the content they have interacted with has subsequently been flagged by an IFCN fact checker would provide users with valuable informational context without requiring content removal.

Critiquing the Definition of Cyber Security under India’s Information Technology Act

Archit Lohani

“Security Measures” by Afsal CMK is licensed under CC BY 4.0


As boundary-less cyberspace becomes increasingly pervasive, cyber threats continue to pose serious challenges to all nations’ economic security and digital development. For example, sophisticated attacks such as the WannaCry ransomware attack in 2017 rendered more than two million computers useless with estimated damages of up to four billion dollars. As cyber security threats continue to proliferate and evolve at an unprecedented rate, incidents of doxing, distributed denial of service (DDoS), and phishing attacks are on the rise and are being offered as services for hire. The task at hand is intensified due to the sheer number of cyber incidents in India. A closer look suggests that the challenge is exacerbated due to an outdated framework and lack of basic safeguards.

This post will examine one such framework, namely the definition of cybersecurity under the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act).

Under Section 2(1)(nb) of the IT Act:

“cyber security” means protecting information, equipment, devices computer, computer resource, communication device and information stored therein from unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction;

This post contends that the Indian definitional approach adopts a predominantly technical view of cyber security and restricts effective measures to ensure cyber-resilience between governmental authorities, industry, non-governmental organisations, and academia. This piece also juxtaposes the definition against key elements from global standards under foreign legislations and industry practices.

What is Cyber security under the IT Act?

The current definition of cyber security was adopted under the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2009. This amendment act was hurriedly adopted in the aftermath of the Mumbai 26/11 terrorist attacks of 2008.  The definition was codified to facilitate protective functions under Sections 69B and 70B of the IT Act. Section 69B enables monitoring and collection of traffic data to enhance cyber security, prevent intrusion and spread of contaminants. Section 70B institutionalised Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), to identify, forecast, issue alerts and guidelines, coordinate cyber incident response, etc. and further the state’s cyber security imperatives. Subsequently, the evolution of various institutions that perform key functions to detect, deter, protect and adapt cybersecurity measures has accelerated. However, this post argues that the current definition fails to incorporate elements necessary to contemporise and ensure effective implementation of cyber security policy.

Critique of the IT Act definition

It is clear that deterrence has failed as the volume of incidents does not appear to abate, making cyber-resilience a realistic objective that nations should strive for. The definition under the IT Act is an old articulation of protecting the referent objects of security- “information, equipment, devices computer, computer resource, communication device and information” against specific events that aim to cause harm these objects through “unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction”.

There are a few issues with this dated articulation of cybersecurity. First, it suffers from the problem of restrictive listing as to what is being protected (aforementioned referent objects). Second, by limiting the referent objects and events within the definition it becomes prescriptive. Third, the definition does not capture the multiple, interwoven dimensions and inherent complexity of cybersecurity which includes interactions between humans and systems. Fourth, due to limited enlisting of events, similar protection is not afforded from accidental events and natural hazards to cyberspace-enabled systems (including cyber-physical systems and industrial control systems). Fifth, the definition is missing key elements – (1) It does not include technological solutions aspect of cyber security such as in the International Telecommunication Union (2009) definition that acknowledges “technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment” and; (2) fails to incorporate the strategies, processes, and methods that will be undertaken. With key elements missing from the definition, it falls behind contemporary standards, which are addressed in the following section.

To put things in perspective, global conceptualisations of cybersecurity are undergoing a major overhaul to accommodate the increased complexity, pace, scale and interdependencies across the cyberspace and information and communication technologies (ICT) environments. In comparison, the definition under the IT Act has remained unchanged.

Although wider conceptualisations have been reflected through international and national engagements such as the National Cyber Security Policy (NCSP). For example, within the mission statement the policy document recognises technological solution elements; and interactions between humans and ICTs in cyberspace as one key rationale behind the cyber security policy.

However, differing conceptualisations across policy and legislative instruments can lead to confusion and introduce implementational challenges within cybersecurity regulation. For example, the 2013 CERT-In Rules rely on the IT Act’s definition of cyber security and define cyber security incidents and cyber security breaches. Further emphasising the narrow and technically dominant discourse which relate to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability triad.

The following section examines a few other definitions to illustrate the shortcomings highlighted above.

Key elements of Cyber security

Despite a plethora of definitions, there is no universal agreement on the conceptualisation of cybersecurity globally. This has manifested into the long-drawn deliberations at various international fora.

Cybersecurity aims to counter and tackle a constantly evolving threat landscape. Although it is difficult to build consensus on a singular definition, a few key features can be agreed upon. For example, the definition must address interdisciplinarity inherent to cyber security, its dynamic nature and the multi-level complex ecosystem cyber security exists in. A multidisciplinary definition can aid authorities and organizations in having visibility and insight as to how new technologies can affect their risk exposure. It will further ensure that such risks are suitably mitigated. To effectuate cyber-resilience, stakeholders have to navigate governance, policy, operational, technical and legal challenges.

An inclusive definition can ensure a better collective response and bring multiple stakeholders to the table. To institutionalise greater emphasis on resilience an inclusive definition can foster cooperation between various stakeholders rather than a punitive approach that focuses on liability and criminality. An inclusive definition can enable a bottom-up approach in countering cyber security threats and systemic incidents across sectors. It can also further CERT-In’s information-sharing objectives through collaboration between stakeholders under section 70B of the IT Act.

When it comes to the regulation of technologies that embody socio-political values, contrary to popular belief that technical deliberations are objective and value-neutral, such discourse (in this case, the definition) suffers from the dominance of technical perspectives. For example, the definition of cybersecurity under the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) framework is, “the ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyber-attacks” directs the reader to the definitions of cyberspace and cyberattack to extensively cover its various elements. However, the said definitions also has a predominantly technical lens.

Alternatively, definitions of cyber security would benefit from inclusive conceptions that factor in human engagements with systems, acknowledge interrelated dimensions and inherent complexities of cybersecurity, which involves dynamic interactions between all inter-connected stakeholders. An effective cybersecurity strategy entails a judicious mix of people, policies and technology, as well as a robust public-private partnership.

Cybersecurity is a broad term and often has highly variable subjective definitions. This hinders the formulation of appropriately responsive policy and legislative actions. As a benchmark, we borrow the Dan Purse et al. definition of cybersecurity– “the organisation and collection of resources, processes, and structures used to protect cyberspace and cyberspace-enabled systems from occurrences that misalign de jure from de facto property rights.” The benefit of this articulation is that it necessitates a deeper understanding of the harms and consequences of cyber security threats and their impact. However, this definition cannot be adopted within the Indian legal framework as (a) property rights are not recognised as fundamental rights and (b) this narrows its application to a harms and consequences standard.

Most importantly, the authors identify five common elements to form a holistic and effective approach towards defining cybersecurity. The following elements are from a literature review of 9 cybersecurity definitions are:

  • technological solutions
  • events
  • strategies, processes, and methods
  • human engagement; and
  • referent objects.

These elements highlight the complexity of the process and involve interaction between humans and systems for protecting the digital assets and themselves from various known and unknown risks. Simply put, any unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction results in at least, a loss of functional control over the affected computer device or resource to the detriment of the person and/or legal entity in whom lawful ownership of the computer device or resource is vested. The definition codified under the IT Act only partly captures the complexity of ‘cyber security’ and its implications.


Economic interest is a core objective that necessitates cyber-resilience. Recognising the economic consequences of such attacks rather than protecting limited resources such as computer systems acknowledges the complex approaches to cybersecurity. Currently, the definition of cybersecurity is dominated by technical perspectives, and disregards other disciplines that should be ideally acting in concert to address complex challenges. Cyber-resilience can be operationalised through a renewed definition; divergent approaches within India to tackle cybersecurity challenges will act as a strategic barrier to economic growth, data flow, investments, and most importantly effective security. It will also divert resources away from more effective strategies and capacity investments. Finally, the Indian approach should evolve and stem from the threat perception, the socio-technical character of the term, and aim to bring cybersecurity stakeholders together.