This blog post has been authored by Shrutanjaya Bhardwaj.
On 28th October 2021, the Supreme Court passed an order in the “Pegasus” case establishing a 3-member committee of technical experts to investigate allegations of illegal surveillance by hacking into the phones of several Indian citizens, including journalists. This post analyses the Pegasus order. Analyses by others may be accessed here, here and here.
The writ petitioners alleged that the Indian Government and its agencies have been using a spyware tool called “Pegasus”—produced by an Israeli technology firm named the NSO Group—to spy on Indian citizens. As the Court notes, Pegasus can be installed on digital devices such as mobile phones, and once Pegasus infiltrates the device, “the entire control over the device is allegedly handed over to the Pegasus user who can then remotely control all the functionalities of the device.” Practically, this means the ‘Pegasus user’ (i.e., the infiltrator) has access to all data on the device (emails, texts, and calls) and can remotely activate the camera and microphone to surveil the device owner and their immediate surroundings.
The Court records some basic facts that are instructive in understanding its final order:
- The NSO Group itself claims that it only sells Pegasus to governments.
- In November 2019, the then-Minister of Electronics and IT acknowledged in Parliament that Pegasus had infected the devices of certain Indians.
- In June-July 2020, reputed media houses uncovered instances of Pegasus spyware attacks on many Indians including “senior journalists, doctors, political persons, and even some Court staff”.
- Foreign governments have since taken steps to diplomatically engage with Israel or/and internally conduct investigations to understand the issue.
- Despite repeated requests by the Court, the Union Government did not furnish any specific information to assist the Court’s understanding of the matter.
These facts led the Court to conclude that the petitioners’ allegations of illegal surveillance by hacking need further investigation. The Court noted that the petitioners had placed on record expert reports and there also existed a wealth of ‘cross-verified media coverage’ coupled with the reactions of foreign governments to the use of Pegasus. The Court’s order leaves open the possibility that a foreign State or perhaps a private entity may have conducted surveillance on Indians. Additionally, the Union Government’s refusal to clarify its position on the legality and use of Pegasus in Court raised the possibility that the Union Government itself may have used the spyware. As discussed below, this possibility ultimately shaped the Court’s directions and relief.
The Pegasus order is analysed below along three lines: (i) the Court’s acknowledgement of the threat to fundamental rights, (ii) the Union Government’s submissions before the Court, and (iii) the Court’s assertion of its constitutional duty of judicial review—even in the face of sensitive considerations like national security.
Acknowledging the risks to fundamental rights
While all fundamental rights may be reasonably restricted by the State, every right has different grounds on which it may be restricted. Identifying the precise right under threat is hence an important exercise. The Court articulates three distinct rights at risk in a Pegasus attack. Two flow from the freedom of speech under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution and one from the right to privacy under Article 21.
The first right, relatable to Article 19(1)(a), is journalistic freedom. The Court noted that the awareness of being spied on causes the journalist to tread carefully and think twice before speaking the truth. Additionally, when a journalist’s entire private communication is accessible to the State, the chances of undue pressure increase manifold. The Court described such surveillance as “an assault on the vital public watchdog role of the press”.
The second right, also traced to Article 19(1)(a), is the journalist’s right to protect their sources. The Court treats this as a “basic condition” for the freedom of the press. “Without such protection, sources may be deterred from assisting the press in informing the public on matters of public interest,” which harms the free flow of information that Article 19(1)(a) is designed to ensure. This observation and acknowledgment by the Court is significant and it will be interesting to see how the Court’s jurisprudence develops and engages with this issue.The third right, traceable to Article 21 as interpreted in Puttaswamy, is the citizen’s right to privacy (see CCG’s case brief on the CCG’s Privacy Law Library of Puttaswamy). Surveillance and hacking are prima facie an invasion of privacy. However, the State may justify a privacy breach as a reasonable restriction on constitutional grounds if the legality, necessity, and proportionality of the State’s surveillance measure is established.
Court’s response to the Government’s “conduct” before the Court
The Court devotes a significant part of the Pegasus order to discuss the Union Government’s “conduct”in the litigation. The first formal response filed by the Government, characterised as a “limited affidavit”, did not furnish any details about the controversy owing to an alleged “paucity of time”. When the Court termed this affidavit as “insufficient” and demanded a more detailed affidavit, the Solicitor General cited national security implications as the reason for not filing a comprehensive response to the surveillance allegations. This was despite repeated assurances given by both the Petitioners and the Court that no sensitive information was being sought, and the Government need only disclose what was necessary to decide the matter at hand. Additionally, the Government did not specify the national security consequences that would arise if more details were disclosed. (The Court’s response to the invocation of the national security ground on merits is discussed in the next section.)
In addition to invoking national security, the Government made three other arguments:
- The press reports and expert evidence were “motivated and self-serving” and thus of insufficient veracity to trigger the Court’s jurisdiction.
- While all technology may be misused, the use of Pegasus cannot per se be impermissible, and India had sufficient legal safeguards to guard against constitutionally impermissible surveillance.
- The Court need not establish a committee as the Union Government was prepared to constitute its own committee of experts to investigate the issue.
The Court noted that the nature and “sheer volume” of news reports are such that these materials “cannot be brushed aside”. The Court was unwilling to accept the other two arguments in part due to the Union Government’s broader “conduct” on the issue of Pegasus. It noted that the first reports of Pegasus use dated back to 2018 and a Union Minister had informed Parliament of the spyware’s use on Indians in 2019, yet no steps to investigate or resolve the issue had been taken until the present writ petitions had been filed. Additionally, the Court ruled that the limited documentation provided by the Government did not clarify its stand on the use of Pegasus. In this context, and owing to reasons of natural justice (discussed below), the Court opined that independent fact finding and judicial review were warranted.
Assertion of constitutional duty of judicial review
As noted above, the Union Government invoked national security as a ground to not file documentation regarding its alleged use of Pegasus. The Court acknowledged that the government is entitled to invoke this ground, and even noted that the scope of judicial review is narrow on issues of national security. However, the Court held that the mere invocation of national security is insufficient to exclude court intervention. Rather, the government must demonstrate how the information being withheld would raise national security concerns and the Court will decide whether the government’s concerns are legitimate.
The order contains important observations on the Government’s use of the national security exception to exclude judicial scrutiny. The Court notes that such arguments are not new; and that governments have often urged constitutional courts to take a hands-off approach in matters that have a “political” facet (like those pertaining to defence and security). But the Court has previously held, and also affirmed in the Pegasus order, that it will not abstain from interfering merely because a case has a political complexion. The Court noted that it may certainly choose to defer to the Government on sensitive aspects, but there is no “omnibus prohibition” on judicial review in matters of national security. If the State wishes to withhold information from the Court, it must “plead and prove” the necessary facts to justify such withholding.
The Government had also suggested that the Court let the Government set up a committee to investigate the matter. The Supreme Court had adopted this approach in the Kashmir Internet Shutdowns case by setting up an executive-led committee to examine the validity and necessity of continuing internet shutdowns. That judgment was widely criticised (see here, here and here). However, in the present case, as the petitions alleged that the Union Government itself had used Pegasus on Indians, the Court held that allowing the Union Government to set up a committee to investigate would violate the principle of bias in inquiries. The Court quoted the age-old principle that “justice must not only be done, but also be seen to be done”, and refused to allow the Government to set up its own committee. This is consistent with the Court’s assertion of its constitutional obligation of judicial review in the earlier parts of the order.
The terms of reference of the Committee are pointed and meaningful. The Committee is required to investigate, inter alia, (i) whether Pegasus was used to hack into phones of Indian citizens, and if so which citizens; (ii) whether the Indian Government procured and deployed Pegasus; and (iii) if the Government did use Pegasus, what law or regulatory framework the spyware was used under. All governmental agencies have been directed to cooperate with the Committee and furnish any required information.
Additionally, the Committee is to make recommendations regarding the enactment of a new surveillance law or amendment of existing law(s), improvements to India’s cybersecurity systems, setting up a robust investigation and grievance-redressal mechanism for the benefit of citizens, and any ad-hoc arrangements to be made by the Supreme Court for the protection of citizen’s rights pending requisite action by Parliament.
The Court has directed the Committee to carry out its investigation “expeditiously” and listed the matter again after 8 weeks. As per the Supreme Court’s website, the petitions are tentatively to be listed on 3 January 2022.
This blog was written with the support of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom.