By Shalini S
Cyberspace has been continually emerging as a significant forum of criminal activity that requires specialized monitoring. However, cyber crime cases often go unreported in India further increasing online vulnerability. Even reported cases mostly result in acquittal due to the lack of forensic infrastructure and trained policed personnel, who are able to retrieve and present adequate and admissible digital evidence.
Recognizing the difficulty of investigating high-technology crime by technically untrained police personnel, a specialized cyber crime cell was first established in Bangalore in 1999. Soon after, in 2001, the cell was declared as a cyber crime police station, the first one to have been established in India and exercising jurisdiction over Karnataka. A multidisciplinary group of experts was set to aid the police station in investigating registered cyber crime cases.
To tackle the mounting number of cyber crime cases being reported across the country, other states followed suit and several cyber crime investigation cells were established throughout India. At present at least 21 Indian states including New Delhi, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh have such dedicated anti-cyber crime cells. Some states which face higher incidence of cyber crime, such as Maharashtra and Odisha even have multiple cyber crime cells or cyber crime police stations staffed with tech-savvy officers.
These cells have been setup specifically to detect, prevent and investigate cyber crimes that fall within the ambit of Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 (Central Act, 2000) and assist other law enforcement agencies in investigating computer-related crime. The specialized cells are generally equipped with high-tech software and hardware equipment required to pursue investigation of cyber crimes. They are also typically manned by specially trained police officers proficient in conducting cyber crime probes. They play a critical role in quickly retrieving digital evidence in a manner that allows it to be admissible in courts. Some of these cells also organize occasional awareness drives to educate the general public on cyber crime, in collaboration with other stakeholders.
While bigger cyber cells are sufficiently equipped to handle cyber crime complaints, local cells often lack expertise and competence in dealing with instances of cyber crime. This however, has not discouraged law enforcement agencies as they continue to innovate creatively to address the problem of cyber crime in India. Some of these innovative reporting and policing methods adopted in India have been described below.
The Delhi Police announced that FIRs for economic fraud and cyber crime cases could be filed through a mobile application that they were set to launch. This initiative was launched in order to simplify the procedure involved in filing a cyber crime complaint, increase transparency and encourage more victims to file complaints. Use of technology to enable simplified online cyber crime reporting is likely to increase the rate of reporting of cyber crime by victims, a view also espoused in a recent ASSOCHAM-EY study.
The Mumbai Police launched an interactive platform that is designed to help law enforcement agencies with detection of cyber crimes. The application which is termed Collaborative Online Crime Control Network (Coin) is linked to global cyber law databases of over 50 countries and help investigators identify offences under both the Information Technology Act, 2000 and cyber laws of other jurisdictions.
Additionally, the first private cyber crime reporting helpline has also begun operation in the Delhi-NCR region and provides technical assistance to victims upon receiving a complaint about a cyber offence. The helpline is generally used by victims who did not want to formally report cases to law enforcement agencies. It was conceptualized taking inspiration from the Internet Crime Complaint Centre (IC3.gov) operated by FBI. Of the complaints received, some serious crimes were forwarded to the Delhi police for investigation.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is also engaged in the fight against cyber crime and has several specialized structures engaged in understanding and combatting cyber crime in India. It is also seemingly equipped with the expertise and equipment to deal with a high-technology crime as it functions as INTERPOL’s National Central Reference Points for Computer-Related Crime. The Cyber Crime Research and Development Unit (CCRDU) liaises with state police to collect information, track developments and trends in cyber crime and disseminates information on cyber crime. The Cyber Crime Investigation Cell (CCIC) exercises jurisdiction throughout India and possesses the power to investigate high technology crime even if they are not covered under the IT Act. The Cyber Forensics Laboratory of the CBI even provides technical help to other law enforcement agencies in ongoing cyber crime investigation.
India is facing a slew of cyber-attacks, launched from both within and outside its border and it is undisputed that there must be determined efforts for better protection. While it is unclear whether tangible changes in cyber crime trends have already been noted after their introduction, creative reporting and policing initiatives are bound to effectively curb cyber crime rates by bringing an attitude change in victims and law enforcement officers.